Doxology

Romans 16:25-27 Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith: To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen. Written to the Romans from Corinthus, and sent by Phebe servant of the church at Cenchrea. 

‘Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began.’ This is certainly a second postscript. Some think that Paul added it when he got to Rome and after he had written Ephesians concerning the mystery that had been kept secret from ages past (Eph. 3:1-21). It is in all the MSS but two or three. Some have it after Romans 14:23 and others have it here. Some have it in both places, but there is no question of its genuineness and authenticity.

‘Mystery’ [Greek: musterion] something previously hidden, but now fully revealed. In the New Testament it always means any doctrine that has not, in former times, been made fully known to people. Eighteen mysteries are mentioned in Scripture: The kingdom of heaven and the kingdom of God (Matt. 13:11; Mark 4:11; Luke 8:10); Israel’s blindness (Rom. 11:25); salvation in Christ (Rom. 16:25); the wisdom of God (1Cor. 2:7); the doctrines of God (1Cor. 4:1; Col. 2:2; 1Tim. 3:16); the gospel (Eph. 6:19); the gift of knowledge (1Cor. 13:2); speaking in tongues (1Cor. 14:2); the rapture (1Cor. 15:23, 51-58; John 14:1-3; 1Thess. 4:13-16); God’s will (Eph. 1:9); the body of Christ (Eph. 3:1-9; 5:32); Christ in people (Col. 1:26-27); the doctrines of Christ (Col. 4:3); the spirit of lawlessness (2Thess. 2:7); the faith of the gospel (1Tim. 3:9); the seven candlesticks (Rev. 1:20); God’s delay in casting out of satan (Rev. 10:7; 12:7-17); mystery Babylon (Rev. 17:5, 7).

‘Scriptures of the prophets’ the writings of the prophets – the Old Testament – are part of the Scriptures.

‘Made known to all nations for the obedience of faith.’ The obedience to the faith among all nations are made known through the: the Gospel, the preaching of Jesus Christ and the revelation of the mystery (16:25); scriptures of the prophets and the commandment of God (16:26). The gospel preaching and revelation by the Scriptures must be known and believed in order for the soul to be saved (Mark 16:15-16; John 3:16-20; Rom. 1:16; 10:9-10; Eph. 2:8-9; 1Jn. 1:9; Heb. 11:6).

The Grace of Our Lord

Romans 16:20-24 And the God of peace shall bruise satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen. Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you. I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord. Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the chamberlain of the city salute you, and Quartus a brother. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen. 

‘And the God of peace shall bruise satan under your feet shortly.’ This is the 4th and last New Testament prophecy in Romans unfulfilled. It will happen when he devoured by fire that will come down from God out of heaven and he will be cast into the lake of fire and brimstone (Rev. 20:9-10).

‘Bruise’ [Greek: suntribo] crush in pieces, utterly defeat and bring to helplessness (Matt. 12:20; Mark 5:4; 14:3; Luke 4:18; 9:39; John 19:36; Rev. 2:27). Satan will be finally defeated at the second coming and the end of the Millennium (Rev. 20:1-10).

‘Timotheus’ – converted by Paul on his first trip (Acts 14:6-7 with 1Tim. 1:2). Part Jew and Greek, uncircumcised, but a good Christian (Acts 16:1-3). A miracle worker like Paul (1Cor. 16:10). Paul’s companion from Derbe and Lystra on (Acts 16:1-3; 17:14-15; 18:5; 19:22; 20:4; Rom. 16:21; 1Cor. 4:17; Php. 2:19). On a mission (Heb. 13:23). It is believed by some that he was Paul’s scribe in writing Hebrews and Galatians. He had the gifts of the Spirit (1Tim. 4:14; 2Tim. 1:6). He was a great student of Scripture (2Tim. 1:5; 2:15; 3:15).

‘Lucius’ probably the one in Acts 13:1, or it could be Luke the evangelist and the writer of Luke and Acts who might have been the same person.

‘Jason’ – unknown, might have been the same one as in Acts 17:5, 7.

‘Sosipater’ – may be the same as in Acts 20:4. The third time Paul refers to kinsmen (16:7, 11).

‘Tertius, who wrote this epistle’ – some unknown scribe who wrote the epistle at Paul’s dictation.

‘Gaius’ – may be the same as the one in Acts 19:29, or of Derbe in Acts 20:4, but almost certainly the one in 1Corinthians 1:14.

‘Erastus the chamberlain of the city.’ Perhaps the same as the one in 2Timothy 4:20 and Acts 19:22. He was chamberlain (treasurer) at Corinth.

‘The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ’ there are four secrets of continued grace: Live and walk in the Spirit (Gal. 5:5; 16-26; Rom. 8:1-13; Col. 3:5-10). Be patient in hope (Gal. 5:5; Rom. 8:24; Heb. 3:6, 12-14; 6:19), continue in Christ (Gal. 5:6; John 15:1-8; Col. 2:6-7; Heb. 3:14) and continue in faith (Gal. 5:6; Col. 1:23).

Mark Them

Romans 16:16-19 Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you. Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple. For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.

‘Salute one another with an holy kiss.’ It was customary to greet each other with a holy kiss, as a token of peace, friendship and brotherly love. This was the custom of all eastern people, not just Christians. Shaking hands is our custom of greeting. The holy kiss custom is referred to in Romans 16:16; 1Corinthians 16:20; 2Corinthians 13:12; 1Thessalonians 5:26; and 1Peter 5:14. People who seek to continue it are simply carrying on a custom that is still being practiced among eastern people.

‘Mark’ [Greek: skopeo] look out for. Be alert for those who cause divisions and have no religious fellowship with them that the flock may be protected (16:17; Php. 3:17).

Ten marks of false teachers: They cause divisions among Christians. They cause offenses against truth (16:18). They do not serve God (16:17-18). They serve their own bellies (16:18; Php. 3:19). They use slick tongues to deceive (16:18). They are enemies of the cross (Php. 3:18). They walk contrary to the gospel (Php. 3:17). They glory in their shame and they mind earthly things (Php.3:19). They bring in heresies (2Pet. 2:1).

‘For your obedience is come abroad unto all men.’ You can always detect true leaders from the false by their godliness, unselfishness, and faithfulness.

‘But yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.’ Paul desired them to show their wisdom by discerning and choosing good from evil.

Salutations

Romans 16:3-11 Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus: Who have for my life laid down their own necks: unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles. Likewise greet the church that is in their house. Salute my well-beloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ. Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us. Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellow prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord. Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus’ household. Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord. Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord. Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them. Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them. 

‘Priscilla and Aquila my helpers’ – they perhaps had gone back to Rome and had a congregation in their house (16:3-4). They are always mentioned together as man and wife (Acts 18:2, 18, 26; 1Cor. 16:19; 2Tim. 4:19).

‘Epaenetus’ – mentioned only here, but he was perhaps of the house of Stephanas, which is also called the firstfruits of Achaia (1Cor. 16:15).

‘Mary, who bestowed much labour on us’ – who she was or what works she bestowed upon Paul we do not know.

‘Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellow prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.’ These two were relatives of Paul and his fellow prisoners. They were noted disciples among the apostles and were Christians before Paul. Just when they were fellow prisoners with Paul is not known.

‘Amlias … ‘ – he next ten disciples are mentioned only here (16:8-12).

‘Herodion my kinsman’ – this is the third relative of Paul mentioned in this list (16:7, 11).

‘Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine’ – this is perhaps the one mentioned in Mark 15:21. His mother acted as a mother to Paul so they were very close.

‘Asyncritus, Phelgon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes …’ The ten persons in Romans 16:14-15 are mentioned only here. The Hermas here is not the one who wrote The Shepherd of Hermas in 120 A.D.

‘Julia’ – at least seven women are named in this chapter: Phebe (16:1), Priscilla (16:3), Mary (16:6), Tryphena, Tryphosa, Persis (16:12), Julia (16:15); and mention is made of an unnamed sister of Nereus (16:15). All of them were Christian workers and deaconesses who “labour in the Lord” (16:12). This indicates that they laboured in the ministry of the Word.

‘Nereus’ – this man, named Nereus after the sea god of the Aegean, retained his heathen name.

As Become Saints

Romans 16:1-2 I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea: That you receive her in the Lord, as become saints, and that you assist her in whatsoever business she has need of you: for she has been a succourer of many, and of myself also. 

‘Phebe’ – she was a deaconess of the congregation at Cenchrea, her duties being to attend to female converts, helping them get ready for baptism; to visit the sick and those in prison, and attend to all parts of work among women which could not be performed by people. She was probably the bearer of the epistle to Rome.

‘A servant of the church’ – she served at the small group that was situated at Cenchrea in someone’s house, just as all ‘churches’ were. Congregation will be the better translation, for no small group of believers functioned independently from the others or had their own doctrines contrary to the Gospel of Jesus Christ.  

‘Servant’ [Greek: diakonon] one who executes the command of another. It is used of: Servants of kings (Matt. 22:13) and servants at feasts (John 2:5,9). Ministers or officers of civil governments (Rom. 13:4) and men and women servants of congregations (Matt. 23:11; Mark 9:35; Rom. 16:1). Deacons of congregations or business elders and distinct from bishops or teaching elders (Php. 1:1; 1Tim. 3:10-13; Acts 6:1-7) Jesus Christ as a minister to the Jews in the work of preaching, teaching and healing (Rom. 15:8; Gal. 2:17; Matt. 4:23-24; 9:35; Acts 10:38) Ministers of congregations (Matt. 20:26; Mark 10:43). Teachers of the gospel (1Cor. 3:5; 2Cor. 3:6; Eph. 3:7; Col. 1:23, 25; 1Thess. 3:2). Ministers of Christ and of God (John 12:26; 2Cor. 6:4-10; 11:23; Eph. 6:21; Col. 1:7; 4:7; 1Tim. 4:6). Also used of ministers of satan to counterfeit the work of true ministers and to deceive (2Cor. 11:15).

‘Cenchrea’ – a city on the sea coast near Corinth.

‘As become saints’ – from Psalm 37 we see various things that constitute for a saint: Control of one’s own spirit (37:1, 7, 8); freedom from jealousy and envy (37:1); absolute trust in God (37:3, 5, 40); consecration to do good (37:3); constant delight in God (37:4); keeping life committed to God (37:5); simple and unwavering faith in God and absolute dependence upon God (37:7, 9, 39); freedom from anger and wrath (37:8); meekness and humility (37:11); abundance of peace and complete satisfaction with lot in life (37:16-19); boldness in evil times (37:19); mercy, compassion, and benevolence (37:21, 26); obedience to God’s leading (37:23); freedom from discouragement in adversity (37:24); household under control (37:26); righteousness (37:21, 29, 30); wisdom and justice (37:30); true to God’s law [now it will be N.T. law] (37:31, 34); propagating truth among men (37:30); living perfect and upright (37:37); possessing full salvation (37:39-40); standing firm in time of trouble (37:39).

 ‘Succourer’ [Greek: prostatis] protector. Athenian writers use the word of those that take in strangers (cp. Rom. 12:8; 1Tim. 5:9-10). She no doubt cared for the apostles and ministers who came to Cenchrea.

Strive Together

Romans 15:25-28, 30-33 But now I go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints. For it has pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor saints which are at Jerusalem. It has pleased them verily; and their debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things. Now I beseech you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ’s sake, and for the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me; That I may be delivered from them that do not believe in Judaea; and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be accepted of the saints; That I may come unto you with joy by the will of God, and may with you be refreshed. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen. 

‘But now I go unto Jerusalem’ – this shows that Paul was headed for his last trip to Jerusalem. After that he planned to visit Rome and Spain (15:22-28).

‘Minister unto the saints’ – this ministering mainly included the large collections for the poor saints at Jerusalem (15:25-28; 1Cor. 16:1-4; 2Cor. 8-9). These Gentile contributions for the poor Jewish saints demonstrated brotherly love for the Christian Jews.

‘Debtors they are. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things.’ Here Paul again states that Gentile Christians were debtors to the Jews who had been used of God to receive the Scriptures and through whom Christ came according to the flesh. Now he points out that it is only right to help the Jews in carnal things.

‘When therefore I have performed this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will come by you into Spain.’ When I take the collections for the poor saints to Jerusalem, I plan to go to Spain and I will come by Rome to see you.

‘That you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me’ – It is noticeable that Paul never got so full of the fullness of God that he felt he did not need prayers of the saints and continued blessings of God.

‘That I may be delivered from them that do not believe in Judaea’ – Paul seems to anticipate the trouble he was to have in Judea (Acts 21:27-26:32).

‘God of peace’ – in the book of Romans, what God is: A witness (1:9); uncorruptible (1:23); impartial (2:11); judge (2:16; 3:6); God of all people (3:29); God of patience and consolation (15:5); God of hope (15:13); God of peace (15:33; 16:20); only wise One (16:27).

Been Much Hindered

Romans 15:22-24, 29 For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you. But now having no more place in these parts, and having a great desire these many years to come unto you; Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you: for I trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought on my way thitherward by you, if first I be somewhat filled with your company. … When therefore I have performed this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will come by you into Spain. And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 

‘For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you.’ Because of his policy to preach the gospel where it has not been preached, he has been hindered for a long time to go where the gospel has already been preached (15:20, 22).

‘No more place in these parts, and having a great desire these many years to come unto you.’ Having evangelized all these parts and having a desire for many years to see them, Paul planned to go to them when he took his journey into Spain (15:23-24).

‘Spain’ there is no record in Scripture or history that Paul ever fulfilled this proposed journey into Spain. It is on record that he went back to Jerusalem and was taken to Rome as a prisoner (Acts 21:1-28:31).

‘For I trust to see you in my journey’ – He trusted to see the Christians in Spain and be blessed with their company as he goes to Spain.

‘And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.’ Here we have Paul’s confidence stated that when he visited them, he would come to them with all the gifts and graces of the Spirit of God and of the gospel of Christ. This confirms the fact that one man may be filled with all the fullness of God and have all the gifts and fruit of the Spirit of 1Corinthians 12:4-11; Galatians 5:22-23. He had already told them that he planned to impart to them some spiritual gift to the end that they would be established (1:11).

Glory through Jesus Christ

Romans 15:17-21 I have therefore whereof I may glory through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God. For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ has not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed, Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. Yea, so have I strived to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man’s foundation: But as it is written, To whom he was not spoken of, they shall see: and they that have not heard shall understand. 

‘Through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God’ – ten things through Jesus Christ: “Therefore being justified by faith, we have PEACE with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (5:1); “Likewise reckon you also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but ALIVE unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.” (6:11); “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is ETERNAL LIFE through Jesus Christ our Lord.” (6:23); “I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind, I myself SERVE THE LAW OF GOD…” [thanks for salvation] (7:25); “I have therefore whereof I MAY GLORY [boasting] through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God.” (15:17); “But thanks be to God, which gives us the VICTORY through our Lord Jesus Christ.” (1Cor. 15:57); “Wherefore thou are no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then AN HEIR [heirship] of God through Christ.” (Gal. 4:7); “And the peace of God, which passes all understanding, shall KEEP [keeping] your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.” (Php. 4:7); “…let him do it as of the ability which God gives: that God in all things MAY BE GLORIFIED through Jesus Christ…” (1Pet. 4:11); “For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world THROUGH THE KNOWLEDGE [salvation] of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ…” (2Pet. 2:20).

‘Illyricum’ included Montenegro, Albania and Yugoslavia.

‘Have fully preached the gospel of Christ.’ Paul here sums up the New Testament program as both teaching and confirming the gospel (15:18-21). ‘To whom he was not spoken of, they shall see: and they that have not heard shall understand’ this is the 19th and last prophecy in Romans (15:21; Isa. 52:15). Those who did not know of Paul or hear the Word from him were the ones to see and understand.

Persuaded of You

Romans 15:14-16 And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that you also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another. Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to me of God, That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost. 

‘Persuaded of you, my brethren, that you also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.’ Paul persuaded of seven things: that God would fill them with joy; that God would fill with peace; that faith would abound in hope; that they had Spiritual power, that they were filled with goodness (15:14), that they were filled with knowledge and that they were capable of ministering.

This persuasion is no more a definite law or a guarantee that such is true of every Christian than that of Romans 8:38-39. Both passages reveal possibilities for all Christians which should be normal in every life, but some are not so persuaded as Paul was.

‘Boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to me of God.’ I have written freely to you in view of my apostolic office to the Gentiles. I am commissioned by Jesus Christ to minister to you Gentiles the gospel of God – that your consecration may be acceptable to God, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit (15:15-16).

‘Sanctified’ [Greek: hagiazo] to hallow (Matt. 6:9; Luke 11:2); be holy (Rev. 22:11); and sanctify or consecrate – set apart for a sacred purpose (Matt. 23:17, 19; John 10:36; 17:17, 19; Acts 20:32; 26:18; Rom. 15:16; 1Cor. 1:2; 6:11; 7:14; Eph. 5:26; 1Thess. 5:23; 1Tim. 4:5; 2Tim. 2:21; Heb. 2:11; 9:13; 10:10, 14, 29; 13:12; 1Pet. 3:15; Jude 1:1). The Greek word for “sanctify” is hagiazo, meaning to separate from a profane to a sacred use; to consecrate self wholly to God and His service. The primary meaning is separation, not making holy. It means to make holy only when the person or thing sanctified needs to be cleansed from sin or defilement in order to be fit to be separated unto God and His service. Material things such as a day (Gen. 2:3); the tabernacle (Ex. 29:43-44); clothes (Lev. 8:30); houses (Lev. 27:9-29); or the temple (2Chron. 7:16-20) must be cleansed from all defilement in order to be fit to be presented to God for His holy uses. God’s name (Ezek. 36:23); God (1Pet. 3:15); Christ (John 10:36; 17:19); or the already cleansed disciples (John 13:10; 15:3; 17:2, 6, 14, 16) need not be cleansed from sin. To sanctify means to set apart from other uses to God’s particular use, not to cleanse from sin or rid of carnal nature (sometimes called “the old man” or Adamic nature). Even Christ, the Sinless One, was sanctified (John 10:36; 17:19). Where humans are concerned one begins to be sanctified when he begins to consecrate his life to God, and the process is continued as he continues in his dedication (1Cor. 1:30; 6:11; 2Thess. 2:13; 1Jn. 1:7-9; 3:8-10; 5:1-4, 18).

Sin is not necessarily involved in sanctification, because the word means setting apart. God has sanctified both people and material things, and even immaterial things.

The God of Hope

Romans 15:8-13 Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers: And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will confess to thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy name. And again he said, Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people. And again, Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles; and laud him, all you people. And again, Esaias said, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust. Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost. 

‘Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers.’ Christ confined His ministry to the Jews to confirm the Scriptures, so the Gentiles should be able to bear with a few Jewish scruples and glorify God for mercy through Christ (15:8-9).

‘For this cause I will confess to thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy name’ this is the 15th Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in Romans (15:9; Ps. 18:49). The gospel has been preached among the Gentiles.

‘Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people’ – this is the 16th Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in Romans (15:10; Deut. 32:43). The Gentiles along with the Jews rejoice in the message [gospel] of the Redeemer of Israel.

‘Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles; and laud him, all you people’ – this is the 17th Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in Romans (15:11; Ps. 117:1). The Gentiles accepted the gospel with great praise contrary to the Jews who rejected both the Messiah and the gospel.

‘Laud’ [Greek: epaineo] highly extol.

‘There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust’ – this is the 18th Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in Romans (15:12; Isa. 11:10). Christ came from the house of David – whose father was Jesse and He rose to reign over the Gentiles and they trusted in Him..

‘Reign’ [Greek: archo] rule. All these prophecies (15:9-12) prove that both the Jews and the Gentiles were to become one in the worship of God, being equal in His mercies and grace (1Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:28; Col. 3:11). The Jews could not deny such arguments from their own prophets

‘The God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.’ The God of the hope of both Jews and Gentiles, who made the promises of eternal salvation to both; and, who has fulfilled them most punctually, fill you with joy and peace in believing you may abound in that same hope, through the power of the Holy Spirit.