Arm Yourselves

1Peter 4:1-4 Forasmuch then as Christ has suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin; That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. For the time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries: Wherein they think it strange that you run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you

‘Arm yourselves likewise with the same mind’ put on the same armour of forgiveness, meekness, gentleness, and complete self-control that Christ had. By exercising these qualities, we enable ourselves to withstand the enemy’s attacks that can come through others or through circumstances on many levels.

‘He that has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin’ he that has mortified the flesh has ceased from sin (Rom. 8:12-13; Col. 3:5-10).

‘The will of God’ always refer to living for God on His moral standards alone, not those set by traditions or society, or our own opinion of what a Christian should look like, so that we can set an example through our daily lives (not preaching) for others to give them hope, thus it will always be important to live godly lives (1:16; 2:21-23; Matt. 5:48) so that we do not cause stumbling through half-truths to others (1 Cor. 10:32; 1Jn. 2:10).

‘Time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles’ this is a picture of Gentile life and indicates that Peter is writing also to the Gentiles and not only to Jews.

‘Walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revelling, banqueting, and abominable idolatries’ eight sins of Jews and Gentiles are mentioned here: Lasciviousness [Greek: aselgeia] every form of lewdness and impurity. Lusts [Greek: epithumia] strong or vehement desire (see Col. 3:5). Excess of wine [Greek: oinophlugia] to be hot or to boil; to be aflame with wine. Drinking of fermented (old wine) is a sin (Pro. 20:1; 21:17; 23:29-25; Isa. 5:11-12, 22; 1Tim. 3:2-3; Tit. 1:7) because it contains alcohol and any form of poisoning of the body is sinful and no sin ever added to the glory of God. We are commanded in the Word in this regard and our bodies are supposed to be the temple of God and we are not allowed to bring damage to it in any way [by any food, drink or outside factors] and we cannot neglect it in any way (1Cor. 6:19-20). Revelling [Greek: komoi] lascivious feasts, boisterous festivity, singing and drinking in honour of idols. Banqueting [Greek: potois] wine feasts or drinking matches. Abominable idolatries – at idol feasts the most impure, obscene, and perverted orgies, and abominable rites were practised. Excess of riot [Greek: asotia] flood of profligacy, sweeping away all rule, order, and restraint before it. Speaking evil of you [Greek: blasphemeo] blaspheming God and man. Translated “speak evil of” (4:4, 14; Rom. 14:16; 1Cor. 10:30; Tit. 3:2; 2Pet. 2:2, 10, 12; Jude 1:8, 10); “revile” (Matt. 27:39); “rail on” (Mark 15:29; Luke 23:39); “report slanderously” (Rom. 3:8); “defame” (1Cor. 4:13); “speak blasphemy” (Matt. 26:65); “blasphemously” (Luke 22:65); “blasphemer” (Acts 19:37); and “blaspheme” (Matt. 9:3; Mark 3:28-29; Luke 12:10; John 10:36; Acts 13:45; 18:6; 26:11; Rom. 2:24; 1Tim. 1:20; 6:1; Tit. 2:5; Jas. 2:7; Rev. 13:6; 16:9, 11, 21).

‘Run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you’ they marvel how you can renounce these fleshly gratifications for something spiritual that you cannot see. Worldly people are always offended when we don’t eat or drink with them and will always comment on this matter because of the guilt that comes from their conscious when their thoughts accuse them (Rom. 2:14-15). Christians ought not to mingle or socialize with people who are not of one mind with regards to what God’s Word says (1Cor.5:9-13; 1Jn. 2:15-17), because we are not to cause offence towards others (Php. 1:10). Only the Holy Spirit convicts of sin (John 16:7-11), no person can successfully convict another person of what is right or wrong. If people stop sinning because of our word, it will never be for the right reasons and they will never be purified in heart by being equipped with the fruit of the Holy Spirit (Gal. 5:22; Php. 1:6).

Bare Our Sins

1Peter 2:24-25 Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes you were healed. For you were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls. 

‘His own self’ Jesus Himself, not another in His place, died for our sins (2:24; 1Cor. 15:3; Gal. 1:4; Matt. 26:28; Acts 20:28).

‘Bare our sins’ He bore the punishment due to our sins. In no other sense could He bear them.

‘Own body’ in the human body prepared by God for Him to become incarnate in (Heb. 10:5).

‘On the tree’ on the cross (Matt. 27:32; Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; Gal. 3:13).

‘That we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness; by whose stripes you were healed’ Three reasons for Christ’s death: That we might be dead to sins (Rom. 6:6-7); that we might live unto righteousness [with no sin] (Rom. 3:26); that we might be healed.

‘Should live unto righteousness’ this means that we should live without sin (Rom. 6; 1Jn. 3). No scripture ever sanctions living in sin as many teach today. Without holiness, no man shall see God (Heb. 12:1-29).

‘By whose stripes you were healed’ physical healing is part of the redemptive work of Christ. By His stripes, we are healed (Isa. 53:5; Matt. 8:17). Two bodily references are made in atonement (at-one-ment with God): Wound [Hebrew: chalal] to wound; bore; slay; pierce (Ps. 109:22; Isa. 51:9; 53:5). This refers to the piercing of the hands, feet, and side. Bruise [Hebrew: daka’] to crumble; beat to pieces; break; bruise; crush; destroy; smite (Job 19:2; Ps. 72:4; 94:5; Isa. 3:15; 53:5, 10). This refers to the stripes by scourging, cuts by thorns, and other physical sufferings, and proves this was part of the work of atonement by which blood was shed. It was by this particular phase of punishment that physical healing was provided for all alike (Isa. 53:5; 1Pet. 2:24).

‘For you were as sheep going astray’ quoted from Isaiah 53:5-6. This is the anticipated confession of men, and the very cause for which the Messiah suffered. ‘Like sheep’ sheep are the most helpless of all animals when they go astray.

‘We have turned every one to his own way’ this has been the way of man ever since the fall. Each one pursues his own interests, makes his own plans, and seeks to gratify his own selfishness, regardless of the interest and good of the whole (Jdg. 17:6; 21:25).

‘As sheep’ people are compared to sheep before salvation (Isa. 53:6; Luke 15:4-6) as well as after it (Matt. 10:16).

‘Shepherd’ Christ is the Good Shepherd and the Overseer of our souls (John 10:6-17; Heb. 13:20-21). ‘Bishop’ [Greek: episkopos] A bishop was a preaching elder (Php. 1:1; 1Tim. 3:2; Tit. 1:7; 1Pet. 2:25). Bishops and presbyters were the same.

Hereunto Were You Called

1Peter 2:21-23 For even hereunto were you called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow his steps: Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judges righteously 

‘For even hereunto were you called; because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow his steps’ Christians are called to suffer and endure hardships, while being without sin (2:22; 1Jn. 2:6), thus following Christ (2Tim. 3:12; John 15:18-21). If you do not know your calling in life: all men were called to walked with God (have a relationship), and to represent Him on earth by living as Christ did on earth so that others can be saved by seeing the life of Christ in us (Eph. 4; Php. 3; 1Jn. 2:6).

‘Example’ a seven-fold example for us to follow, is given of Christ: Sufferings (2:21); sinlessness (2:22); guilelessness (2:22); love when being mocked (2:23); patience in threatening (2:23); resignation to God (2:23); and living in righteousness – that means without sin (2:24; Rom. 6; 1Jn. 3). These are the example according to which a proclaimed Christian should live; you cannot set your own standards for a true believer, but must follow what is commanded in God’s Word. The Word was not given for as to form our own opinion, religion and ideas of ‘what God wants’ the Word was given as instruction with human and godly examples of what exactly to do to live in obedience to God in all things.

‘Steps’ [Greek: ichnos] track or footstep. Only used of: Abraham (Rom. 4:12); Paul and Titus (2Cor. 12:18) and Jesus Christ (2:21).

‘Who did no sin’ Christ was the only sinless human being that ever lived. Mary was a sinner, for she rejoiced in God, her Saviour (Luke 1:47). There is no hint in Scripture that she had an immaculate conception. If she did have, then her parents had to be sinless, and their parents, etc. back to Adam. On the contrary, all men are born in sin aside from Christ, for He is the only one without a human father (Ps. 51:5; Rom. 5:12-21). The reasons Christ have sinless flesh: He had no fall and was therefore sinless; He did not submit to satan and to his spirit and sinful nature (Eph. 2:2; John 8:44; 1Jn. 3:8). He came from the woman but was not of the seed of man (Gen. 3:15; Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7; Matt. 1:18-23; Luke 1:32-35; Rom. 8:3; Gal. 4:4; Php. 2:5-11; John 1:14; 1Tim. 3:16; Heb. 2:9-18). Man is recognized as the head of the race in all Scripture (Gen. 2:20-22; 2Cor. 11:3; Rom. 5:12-21). The iniquity of man, not woman, was passed as a curse upon children (Ex. 20:5; Num. 14:18; Deut. 5:9; Jer. 31:29-30; Ezek. 18:2-4). Mary was merely the means of God in bringing His own Son into a human body. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit, not by man who could not produce sinless offspring. God is holy and cannot produce sinful offspring. This is according to the law of reproduction in Genesis 1:22-28. Thus by means of a woman, God could send Christ in the likeness of the flesh controlled by sin, and yet not of sinful flesh controlled by sin and satan (2:22).

‘Neither was guile found in his mouth’ the 5th and last Old Testament prophecy in 1Peter (2:22; Isa. 53:9). ‘Reviled’ He did not rail on His tormenters or threaten them, but committed His cause to the righteous Judge who will always do right (Gen. 18:25). Four things are noted that Christ did not do: He did not sin (2:22); He did not use guile to cover up (2:22); He did not rail on His enemies (2:23), and He did not threaten His enemies (2:23). Four things are noted that Christ did: He suffered as our example (2:21); He committed His cause to God (2:23); He bore our sins in His own body (2:24); He submitted to stripes to heal men (2:24; Isa. 53:4-6; Matt. 8:16-17).

A Stone of Stumbling

1Peter 2:7-10 Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed. But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that you should show forth the praises of him who has called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. 

‘Stone of stumbling …’ this is the 3rd Old Testament prophecy in 1 Peter (1:8; Isa. 8:14). The reasons why the Jews stumbled at Christ: Because He did not come as a worldly prince to deliver them from the Romans (John 11:48; Acts1:7). Because He was a poor man having no appeal to worldly people (2Cor. 8:9; John 15:19-23; 17:14-16).

Then we have the reasons why the Jews killed Jesus: His kingship (Matt. 2:2-3, 16; John 18:33-40; 19:12-22); for telling the truth (Luke 4:21-29; John 8:40); for healing on the sabbath (Matt. 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-6; John 5:16; 9:16); out of jealousy (Matt. 26:3-4; 27:18; Mark 14:1; 15:10; Luke 22:2; John 11:48); because of their ignorance (Matt. 26:64-66; Mark 14:62-64; John 12:40; Acts 3:17); to fulfil prophecy (Luke 13:33-35; John 12:38-40; 18:31-32; 19:11, 28, 36-37; Acts 2:22-36; 3:18); because He claimed Sonship (John 5:18; 10:24-39; 19:7); because of their unbelief (John 5:38-47; 6:36; 9:40-41; 12:36-38); He claimed to be God (John 8:53-59; 10:33; cp. John 1:1-2; Heb. 1:5-14); for fear of losing their authority (John 11:46-53; 12:10-11, 19).

‘Being disobedient’ this is what made them stumble. Anyone who obeys God will not stumble at Christ. ‘Also they were appointed’ this simply means that people are appointed to stumble if they are determined to be disobedient. God did not choose them to stumble or be disobedient. This was their choice (Matt. 13:15).

Ten symbols of the Messiah are given: A foundation stone (Isa. 28:16; Eph. 2:20); a tried stone (Matt. 21:42-44; Acts 4:11); a precious corner stone (2:4-8); a sure foundation (1Cor. 3:11); a smitten rock (Ps. 78:16; Num. 20:8-11; 1Cor. 10:4); head stone of the corner (Ps. 118:22); rejected stone (Ps. 118:22; Acts 4:11); stumbling stone (Isa. 8:14; Rom. 9:32-33); a living stone (2:4); a rock (stone) of offense (2:8; Isa.8:14).

‘But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, and holy nation, a peculiar people’ Four things about Jewish Christians: A chosen generation (cp. Deut. 7:6); a royal priesthood (cp. Ex. 19:6); an holy nation (cp. Ex. 19:6); a peculiar people, the Greek word peripoiesis meaning purchased, not peculiar as in dress, speech, or manner of life (cp. Deut. 7:6)

‘Praises’ [Greek: arête] only translated praise here, but virtue in Philippians 4:8 and 2Peter 1:3, 5. The word refers to virtuous thoughts, feelings or actions. The virtues Christians are to show before men are the perfections of wisdom, knowledge, justice, truth, love, patience, holiness, goodness, grace, joy, peace, faith, and other attributes and powers of the Divine Trinity. These virtues are to be demonstrated by Christians to angels and men (1:12; 1Cor. 4:9; Eph. 3:9-10) ‘Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy’ this is the 4th Old Testament prophecy in 1Peter (2:10; Hos. 1:9-10; 2:23) describing the mercy the Jews have obtained through Christ.

As Lively Stones

1Peter 2:5-6 You also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believes on him shall not be confounded. 

‘You also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood’ three things Christians are: Living stones, because of being in the Living Stone (2:4-5; 2Cor. 5:17-18); a spiritual house (Eph. 2:18-22; 1Cor. 12:13-28; Rom. 12:4-5); An holy priesthood (2:5, 9; Rev. 1:6; 5:10; 20:4-6)

‘Offer up spiritual sacrifices’ the sacrifices this priesthood offers are spiritual (Rom. 7:14). There are ten spiritual sacrifices mentioned in the Word: Spiritual people offering themselves (Rom. 12:1-2; 1Cor. 2:15; 3:1; Gal. 6:1); spiritual services (1Cor. 2:4; 9:11; 14:12; 2Cor. 3:6); songs (Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16); praises (1Pet. 2:9; Heb. 13:15-16); conduct (Rom. 8:1-13; Gal. 5:16, 25); personal faith (2Cor. 4:13-18); wisdom and knowledge (Col. 1:9); personal love (Col. 1:8); faithfulness (Php. 1:27; Rom. 1:9); prayer and supplications (Eph. 6:18). Out of the spirit (thoughts) we serve God with our free wills and a clear mind, not out of the soul where-from all passions originate that last as long as the ‘mood’ does. God is a Spirit being and when someone worships Him, it must be in spirit and in truth (John 4:24).

‘Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believes on him shall not be confounded’ this is the first Old Testament prophecy in 1Peter (2:6; Isa. 28:16). The foundation of the body of Christ was to be laid in Jerusalem. There it was laid and there Christ suffered and died for the sins of the whole world (Matt. 23:37-39; Luke 13:33). There the Holy Spirit fell upon believers and the first outpour of the Holy Spirit took place after the death of Christ took place (Acts1:8; 2:1-8:1). ‘Chief corner stone’ this is the 2nd Old Testament prophecy in 1Peter (2:7; Ps. 118:22).

The twelve-fold stoneship of the Messiah in the Word: The stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24); the stone of stumbling (2:8; Isa. 8:14; Rom. 9:33); the foundation stone (Isa. 28:16; Matt. 16:18; 1Cor. 3:11; Eph. 2:20); a tried stone (Isa. 28:16); a precious cornerstone (2:4, 6-7; Isa. 28:16); a sure stone (Isa. 28:16); a rejected stone (2:4, 7-8; Matt. 21:42; Mark 12:10-11; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11); a living stone (2:4); a chosen stone (2:4); a chief cornerstone (2:6); an elect (chosen) stone (2:6); the head stone (2:7-8; Ps. 118:22).

‘Confounded’ [Greek: kataischuno] shame and dishonour. When we believe in Christ we will never have to be [confounded] ashamed or dishonoured.

Believe in God

1Peter 1:19-21 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.

‘As of a lamb without blemish and without spot’ He came as a man – a lowly servant of all to set the right example of how men can be like God. He came and lived as God would live among men so that men could learn to live like God. He literally “emptied Himself” (Php. 2:5-8) and took the form of a servant instead of the form of a sovereign. He humbled Himself from deity to humanity and from humanity to infamy, taking on Him the sins of the world and redeeming fallen man to His original dominion.

‘Foreordained’ the Greek word proginosko meaning to know beforehand (Rom. 8:29). It refers both to God seeing ahead that He would have to send a Saviour to redeem man from the fall (Rom. 8:29-30). No single individual is chosen, elected, foreknown, or predestined to be saved or lost without his personal choice and responsibility in the matter (John 3:16; 1Tim. 2:4; 2Pet. 3:9; Rev. 22:17). It would be cruel impartiality – unjust regard for one and an unjust disregard for another – and not divine justice for one to be chosen by God to be saved and another to be damned. God offers grace to all alike. His invitations, promises, provision, and warnings of punishment are general. All people are invited to choose life and are warned of eternal punishment if they do not do so. It is inconsistent with man’s probation for God to elect some to be saved and some to be lost.

‘Before the foundation of the world’ before the disruption or overthrow of the pre-Adamite world (Matt. 13:35). ‘Foundation’ the Greek word katabole means to cast or throw down (note the verb kataballo translated “cast down” in 2Corinthians 4:9 and Revelation 12:10). Katabole should have been translated “overthrow” or “casting down of the world” in Matthew 13:35; 25:34; Luke 11:50; John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; Hebrews 4:3; 9:26; 11:10; 1Peter 1:20; Revelation 13:8; 17:8. With the exception of Hebrews 11:10, katabole is used with kosmos meaning social world, and refers to the overthrow of the pre-Adamite world by the flood of Genesis 1:2; 2Peter 3:5-7; Psalms 104:5-9; Jeremiah 4:23-26 and the defeat of Lucifer and his earthly kingdom before Adam (Isa. 14:12-14; Eze. 28:11-17; Luke 10:18).

‘Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God’ four things Christians believe: They believe in God through Christ, in the bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ, in the ascension and exaltation of Jesus Christ and that their faith and hope are based upon the work of Christ.

To fully belief means: To believe that all the promises of God are yea and amen to all (2Cor.1:20); to believe that all things are possible to the believer (Mark 9:23); to believe that all things we ask in prayer we receive (Matt. 7:7-11; 21:22); to believe that even all of our desires will be granted (Mark 11:22-24); to believe that we can ask what we will, and it will be given (John 15:7); to believe in those things that be not as though they were (Rom. 4:17); to believe that God is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him (Heb. 11:6); to believe that God gives liberally and that he does not upbraid or rebuke when we come to him for anything (Jas. 1:5-8); to believe without ever a question or a waver that what is asked is done (Jas. 1:5-8); to believe that it is the will of God to give what He has promised (1Jn. 3:22); to believe that Christ took all sickness and sin in His own body on the cross and that we do not have to bear them one minute after we accept His vicarious work (Matt. 8:16-17; 1Pet. 2:24; Isa. 53:4-5). To believe that every believer can do the same works of God that Christ did and that God’s power in the baptism of the Spirit is the same today as when Christ and the early believers received it (John 14:12-15: Luke 24:49; Acts 1:8; 2:38-39; 5:32).

The Name of the Son

1John 5:13-21 These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may believe on the name of the Son of God. And this is the confidence that we have in him, that, if we ask any thing according to his will, he hears us: And if we know that he hear us, whatsoever we ask, we know that we have the petitions that we desired of him. If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it. All unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death.

‘These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God’ this is the purpose of the written Word that was given to us by God (2Tim. 3:16) through the prophets (Old Testament) and the apostles (New Testament); that those who believe on the name of Jesus can have eternal life. ‘That you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may believe in the name of the Son of God’ two reasons for writing: That you may have eternal life and that you may believe in Jesus.

‘The name of the Son of God’ the name of Jesus stands for justice, love, righteousness, holiness, peace, power, influence, happiness, liberty, life, light, joy, friendship, judgment, salvation, home, Heaven, and all that is good. It has been the greatest name of all ages among men. Some have died for it and some have hated it enough to be damned because of it. It is the hope of the world and the joy of all saints.

The most wonderful truth for saints is that of the free and unreserved use of His name to carry on the work of God in the Earth and to act in His stead among men in defeating sin and satan. Men are the only visible agents of God in the world. God desires them to fully represent Him with great power and authority to prove to men that God is great and powerful to save their souls. From the way the average man represents God among men, it would seem that satan is greater and more powerful than God. All arguments from these weak and failing representatives of God are not convincing to unbelievers that God is the greatest.

All men have the legal and redemptive right to use the name of Jesus in asking and receiving from God. This puts prayer on a purely legal basis. The name of Jesus means much to the Father. He will always honour this name, for it means to Him that redemption has been completed and the world is saved from eternal rule by satanic powers. It means to the Father that His eternal plan of a perfect and sinless society on Earth and in the whole universe is guaranteed. This means more to the Father than our finite minds can now grasp because of the lack of understanding of the scope of the plan of God for man. The Father recognizes all that the name of Jesus implies. He knows that we have a legal and family right to use this name in prayer. The Father knows that the right use of this name will deliver all men from sin, sickness, and failure in life. It is the glory of God to recognize the name of Jesus in prayer and to answer according to the faith exercised.

‘Know that you have eternal life:’ By personal fellowship (1:3-7; 2:13); in fullness of joy in the heart (1:4); in keeping His commandments (2:3; 3:22); when walking even as He walked (2:6; 1Pet. 2:21-23); in love of the brethren (2:9-11; 3:10-19, 23; 4:7-21; 5:1); overcoming the world and satan (2:13-14; 5:4, 18); in the hatred of the world (2:15-17); being one with Christians (2:19); in Holy Spirit anointing (2:20-27); knowing the truth that sets free (2:21; John 8:32-36); acknowledging God and Christ (2:22-25); doing righteousness (2:29; 3:7-10; 5:1-4, 18); by purifying ourselves (3:3); being born again (2:29; 3:9; 5:1-18); cleansing from sin (1:7-9; 3:5-10); in freedom from condemnation (3:20-24); the indwelling Spirit (3:24; 4:4, 13); in faith (2:23; 5:1, 10); by confessing Christ (4:14-15); and receiving Him (5:10-13; John 1:12); through answered prayer (3:21-22; 5:14-15).

‘According to his will, he hears us’ this means according to His word (John 15:7; Rom. 10:17). God cannot deny His Word or Himself. We should consider the answers as sure as if we already had them (Rom. 4:17; Heb. 11:6; Jas. 1:5-8; Mark 11:22-24).

‘Brother sin a sin’ a Christian brother, not a sinner. ‘Unto death’ all sin is forgivable except blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:31-32). Since this sin is the only one unto death (i.e., unforgivable), it is useless to pray for it.

Jesus Before Pilate

John 18:28-32 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring you against this man? They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee. Then said Pilate unto them, Take you him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death: That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spoke, signifying what death he should die. 

‘Let they Jesus from Caiaphas’ Jesus was led by the mob to Annas (18:13); by the mob to Caiaphas (Matt. 26:57; Mark 14:53; Luke 22:54; John 18:24); by the Jews to Pilate (Matt. 27:2; Luke 23:1; John 18:28); by soldiers to Herod (Luke 23:7); by soldiers to Pilate again (Luke 23:11-25); by soldiers to be scourged and mocked (Mark 15:16-19); by soldiers to be crucified (Matt. 27:31; Mark 15:20; Luke 23:26, 32; John 19:16).

‘The hall of judgment’ Pilate’s house, called the Praetorium, the dwelling place of the praetor, the chief ruler of the province. It was where he held court (Mark 15:16).

‘Early’ it was early in the day of preparation, from our Tuesday sunset to Wednesday sunset. It was perhaps between 11:00 p.m. to midnight, for a little later it was the 6th hour or midnight (19:14).

‘Passover’ Jesus had eaten of the passover before the time (Matt. 26:18-20; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-15), and was Himself slain at the time of the offering of the paschal lamb (1Cor. 5:7).

‘Pilate then went out unto them’ he went out to them lest they be defiled by coming into him. The Romans had agreed to permit the Jews the free use of their rites and ceremonies, so this was all Pilate could do.

‘Malefactor’ the Greek word kakopoios which means evildoer. They did not want Pilate to judge, but to execute the sentence they had already illegally passed. Pilate was not willing to execute a man whom he had not tried and who was not guilty, so offered to turn Jesus over to them for execution (John 18:31).

‘It is not lawful for us to put any man to death’ this was another sin of the Jews. They had the power to stone anyone breaking their law (8:1-11, 59; 10:31; Acts 7:59), but in this case, they lied and, fearing the people, determined to raise the plea of rebellion against Caesar, throwing the responsibility of the Lord’s death upon Pilate (19:7, 12). He had to die by crucifixion to fulfil prophecy (Matt. 20:19; 26:2; John 3:14; 12:32-33). Jews did not crucify and they had no power to do so with criminals that were accused of crimes against the state, so they intimidated Pilate by accusing him of not being a friend of Caesar if he let Christ go (19:7, 12).

Peter’s Denial

John 18:12-18, 25-27 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year. Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spoke unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter. Then said the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Are not thou also one of this man’s disciples? He said, I am not. And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself. And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Are not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, said, Did not I see thee in the garden with him? Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew. 

‘Captain’ the Greek word chiliarchos – the commander of 1,000 men; one of 6 tribunes attached to a legion, showing the importance the Romans attached to the arrest of Jesus, the Jews have represented it as a dangerous case of sedition.

‘Annas’ – he was perhaps the head of the Sanhedrin. He had been appointed high priest several times and had five sons and a son-in-law who had held this office. ‘Same year’ the office was no longer for life, as originally. Now it was by appointment by civil rulers and not by God.

‘He, which gave counsel to the Jews’ – he had already passed sentence that Jesus should be killed (11:49-52), hence he was disqualified to be His judge. But Christ was not tried by rules of justice or He would not have been crucified.

‘That disciple’ perhaps John himself who always refers to himself in the third person (13:23; 19:26; 21:7, 20). Or it could have been Nicodemus or Joseph (19:38).

‘Damsel that kept the door’ tradition says her name was Ballila. Women were doorkeepers (Acts 12:13). ‘Are not thou also one of this man’s disciples? I am not.’ first of three lies (18:17, 18:25-26). In verse 27 the third lie and denial of Jesus are stated.

‘They’ the officers and servants of the high priest, the Roman Chiliarch and his soldiers had gone back to the barracks, leaving Jesus in the hands of the Jews.

‘Warmed himself’ – a dangerous thing to do – to warm one’s self by the fire of his enemies.

Twelve steps in Peter’s backsliding from Matthew: he boasted (Matt. 26:33; Pro. 16:18); he made Christ a liar (Matt. 26:33-35); he slept instead of praying (Matt. 26:40); he failed to mortify his flesh (Matt. 26:41); he relied on the arm of flesh (Matt. 26:51); he forsook Christ and fled (Matt. 26:56); he followed afar off (Matt. 26:58); he sat with the Lord’s enemies (Matt. 26:58); he gave up hope and became discouraged (Matt. 26:58); he became afraid of men (Matt. 26:69-74); he lied (Matt. 26:69-74); and he cursed (Matt. 26:69-74).  Jesus had predicted his backsliding and his re-conversion (Luke 22:31-34).

He Has Overcome

John 16:25-33 These things have I spoken unto you in proverbs: but the time cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall show you plainly of the Father. At that day you shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you: For the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came out from God. I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go to the Father. His disciples said unto him, Lo, now speak thou plainly, and speak no proverb. Now are we sure that thou know all things, and need not that any man should ask thee: by this we believe that thou came forth from God. Jesus answered them, Do you now believe? Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that you shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. These things I have spoken unto you, that in me you might have peace. In the world you shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world. 

Jesus spoke in proverbs to the disciples; He gave them instruction by numerous examples and divine rules to govern all of their conduct – civil, religious, and business life. Afterwards, He spoke to them plainly of the Father.

‘That I will pray the Father for you’ – we pray and Jesus will make intercession for us (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25; 1Jn. 2:1-2). If we will pray and have faith, the Father will never deny us what we want. He always hears His Son and if He did not spare Him in sufferings and death He will not refuse to give us what Christ died for to give to us (Rom. 8:32). When we pray in Jesus name or by His authority the Father will always hear and answer, because this is what He sent Jesus to tell the disciples [and us], so let this be a settled fact in our lives.

Jesus told the disciples that He came from the Father into the world; and will leave the world and go back to the Father. They understood Him clearly and declared that He knows all things and that He was sent from the Father to teach them [and us].

The 40th New Testament prophecy fulfilled in John: Jesus warned the disciples that a time shall come when they will be scattered, every man to his own, and they shall leave Him alone: this was fulfilled the night of His arrest (Matt. 26:56; Zech. 13:7). Jesus comforted them so that they might have peace when the arrest took place, by saying that He will not be alone because the Father will be with Him. He furthermore warned them that they will have tribulation in the world, but they must be of good cheer; for He has overcome the world.  ‘Overcome’ the Greek word nikao which means conquered.