Died and Rose Again

1Thessalonians 4:14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 

‘Died and rose again.’ The death of Jesus Christ is the assurance of salvation for all who will believe (Matt. 26:28; Rom. 5:6-11; 1Pet. 2:24). The resurrection of Jesus Christ is the assurance of resurrection for all men (5:10; John 14:19; Rom. 5:10; 6:5-8; 1Cor. 15:4-23; 2Tim. 2:11).

‘Sleep in Jesus’ – Body-sleep, is not soul-sleep: Sleep means the death of the body (4:14-16; 5:10; Deut. 31:16; 2Sam. 7:12; 1Kin. 1:21; Job 7:21; Ps. 13:3; Dan. 12:2; Mark 5:39; Luke 8:52; John 11:11-14; Acts 13:36; 1Cor. 11:30; 15:51; Jas. 2:26). These are all the passages where the word “sleep” is found in connection with the death. The word “slept” is used in Matthew 27:52 and 1Corinthians 15:20 of death, and the phrase “slept with his fathers” is used 36 times of death in the Old Testament. Not one time is it stated that the soul sleeps. The soul is immortal (1Pet. 3:4). The term “sleep in Jesus” simply refers to those who were in Christ at their death (4:14, 16).

‘Bring with him.’ Christians at death go immediately to paradise to await the resurrection of their sleeping bodies (2Cor. 5:8; Php. 1:21-24; Heb. 12:22-23; Rev. 6:9-11). When Christ leaves heaven to come down in the air of the earth (4:17), the saints who are in paradise will come back with Him and be reunited with their bodies which will be resurrected in a moment (1Cor. 15:51-58).

The First Man

1Corinthians 15:45-49 And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual. The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven. As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly. 

‘The first man Adam was made a living soul’ – quoted from Genesis 2:7.

‘The last Adam was made a quickening spirit.’ Seven contrasts between Adam and Christ: First Adam – last Adam (15:45); living soul – quickening spirit (15:45); natural – spiritual (15:46); earthly – heavenly (15:47); of the earth – of heaven (15:47); only man – both man and God (15:47); first man – second man (15:47).

‘As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.’ The earthly body will be like the earthly; the resurrected body will be like other heavenly bodies (15:48-49). ‘Image’ [Greek: eikon] likeness, profile; statue, or physical resemblance (15:49; 11:7; Matt. 22:20; Acts 19:35; Rom. 1:23; 8:29; 11:4; 2Cor. 4:4; Col. 1:15; Heb. 10:1; Rev. 13:14-15; 14:9-11; 15:2; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4). This further proves that spiritual and heavenly bodies are real and tangible. If the moral and spiritual image and likeness only are referred to, then interpreting all the preceding passages and those that follow with this idea alone would be very difficult (Gen. 5:3; 9:6; Ex. 20:4; Lev. 26:1; Ps. 73:20; 106:19; Isa. 40:19-20; 44:9-17; 45:20; Jer.10:14; 51:17). Doing away with outward forms of idols and people in these passages and claim that they have only a moral and spiritual image are not logical. With idols, only an outward image could be understood. With people, outward image is also the main idea. So, when the same word is used of heavenly beings it proves that they also have outward form and physical image.

He Was Seen

1Corinthians 15:4c-8  And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. 

‘Seen’ – Over 514 witnesses saw Christ after the resurrection, we have 12 appearances of Christ: firstly to Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:9; John 20:15-16); to the women at the tomb (Matt. 28:9); to two disciples on the road to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-31); to Peter (15:5; Luke 24:34); to ten of the apostles (John 20:19); to eleven of the apostles (John 20:26); to seven of the apostles (John 21:1-22; this was after the second Sunday); to eleven of the apostles on a certain mountain in Galilee (Matt. 28:16); to all twelve apostles, which including Matthias (15:5; Acts 1:26); to five hundred brethren (15:6); to James, the Lord’s brother (15:7; Gal. 1:19); to all the apostles again (15:7; Mark 16:19-20; Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1:3-12, 26).

‘Cephas’ this was Peter (Luke 24:34; Mark 16:14).

‘The twelve’ – the term is used here officially, including Matthias (Acts 1:26) and excluding Paul (15:7-8).

‘He was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.’ This could be the same as in Matthew 28:16.

‘He was seen of James; then of all the apostles.’ This is James, the half-brother of Jesus (Gal. 1:19).

‘And last of all he was seen of me also’ – This is proof that Paul did not class himself as one of the 12 apostles (15:5-8). They were chosen because they had been eyewitnesses from the beginning.

‘One born out of due time’ [Greek: ektroma] a child untimely born; an abortion. Paul referred to being born out of the season when the 12 apostles were chosen (Isa. 66:6-7; Rom. 11:25-29; Zech. 12:10-13:1).

The Head of Every Man

1Corinthians 11:1-4 Be you followers of me, even as I also am of Christ. Now I praise you, brethren, that you remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you. But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God. Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonours his head. 

‘Followers’ [Greek: mimetes] imitators. Follow or imitate me as I imitate Christ (4:16; 11:1; Eph. 5:1; 1Thess. 1:6; 2:14; Heb. 6:12; 1Pet. 3:13).

‘Praise’ [Greek: epaineo] commend (Luke 16:8); laud (Rom. 15:11), and praise (1Cor. 11:2, 17, 22).

‘Keep’ [Greek: katecho] hold fast (1Thess. 5:21; Heb. 3:6, 14; 10:23).

‘Ordinances’ [Greek: paradosis] a handing down; doctrines; traditions (Matt. 15:2-6; Mark 7:3-13; Gal. 1:14; Col. 2:8; 2Thess. 2:15; 3:6). What ordinances he refers to are not listed, but they no doubt include the whole body of truth of the gospel and not only the Lord’s Supper and water baptism.

‘The head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.’ Three headships in 1Corinthians11:3: God is head of Christ. Christ is head of man. Man is head of woman – the husband is the head of his wife.

‘The head of Christ is God’ – God and Christ are two separate and distinct persons (1Tim. 2:5).

‘Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonours his head.’ Every man praying or prophesying with a cap or turban on his head dishonours his head, Christ (11:3). This was in direct contrast to the canons of the Jews which did not permit a man to pray or prophesy unless veiled. Their idea was that man is unworthy to have an open face before God.

‘Dishonours’ [Greek: kataischuno] shame (Luke 13:17; Rom. 5:5; 9:33; 10:11; 1Cor. 11:22; 2Cor. 7:14; 9:4; 1Pet. 3:16); confound (1Cor. 1:27; 1Pet. 2:6); and dishonour (11:4-5). Christianity is an open-faced religion and nothing is to be done in secret or under cover.


1Corinthians 1:14-17 I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius; Lest any should say that I had baptized in mine own name. And I baptized also the household of Stephanas: besides, I know not whether I baptized any other. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect. 

‘Crispus’ was the chief ruler of the synagogue and he believed in the Lord with all his house (Acts 18:8). The chief ruler presided in all assemblies, interpreted the law, decided what was lawful and unlawful, punished and executed the rebellious, solemnized marriages, and issued divorces. Upon his conversion, Sosthenes succeeded him (Acts 18:17). He also became a convert (1Cor. 1:1).

 ‘Gaius’ mentioned in Romans 16:23. He may be the Diotrephes whom John refers to in his third epistle (3Jn. 1:9), when he says that he wrote unto the congregation. If this is true then we could suppose that 3 John could be called John’s epistle to the Corinthian congregation.

‘Stephanas’ we read of in 1Corinthians 16:15-17.

‘Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel.’ Seven important facts Paul notes on water baptism: Paul was thankful that he had not emphasized or practiced baptism (1:14). Christ sent him not to baptize, but to preach the gospel (1:17). Baptism is not essential to salvation from sin (1:17-24). It is merely a symbol of that salvation (1Pet. 3:21). Christ saves people before and without water baptism (1:17-21). The gospel were preached without the preacher being a baptizer (1:17; John 4:2; Matt. 4:17-24). The preaching of the cross, not baptism, is God’s power to save (1:18-21; Rom. 1:16; 10:9-10; Eph. 2:8-9). Faith, not baptism, saves the soul (1:21; John 3:15-20, 36; 5:24). It is important only after one is saved. Baptism into water is essential to obedience and to a “good conscience” after one is saved and in Christ (Mt. 28:19; 1Pet. 3:21; 1Jn. 5:6-10).

‘Not with wisdom of words.’ Human eloquence is no substitute for Holy Spirit anointing and power (2:1-5).

Dead to Sin

Romans 6:1-2 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? 

‘What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? … How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? Know you not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?’ – having proved the sinfulness of both Jews and Gentiles and that both must be redeemed alike by Christ through faith and grace, Paul now takes up the argument of the divine method of dealing with sin and the secret of a victorious holy life (Romans 6:1-8:39). The questions come up that if salvation is free and apart from works – if the more heinous the sins the more abundant the grace to pardon then may we not go on in sin so that the grace of God may become magnified? God forbid.

Seven plain gospel facts are stated in 1John: Christ was manifested to take away our sins (1Jn. 3:5; Tit. 2:12). One cannot be in Christ and continue to sin (1Jn. 3:5-6; 2Cor. 5:17). Man can be as righteous as Christ in this life (1Jn. 3:7; 4:17; Tit. 2:12). Every man who sins is of the devil (1Jn. 3:8; John 8:44). Christ came to destroy the works of the devil (1Jn. 3:8; Matt. 8:17; Acts 10:38; John 10:10). One cannot sin as long as the Word of God remains in him (Rom. 6:14-23; 8:1-13; 1Jn. 3:9). All people are not children of God (1Jn. 3:10).

Literally thousands of religious teachers are constantly saying that no man can live free from sin, that we sin every day, and that there is no man that does not sin every day he lives. One can see that this teaching is entirely out of harmony with the Bible by reading Scripture. If these men sin every day, then they are sinners every day and there is no time that they are not sinners. If they are sinners all the time, then there is no time they are not under the death penalty of the broken law, and they will be sent to Hell as sinners to pay the death penalty. They are not Christians or saved from sin any one day they live if they sin every day they live. Christ means nothing to them if they are sinners and if they cannot be saved from sin. People who think they cannot live free from sin are really mistaken as to what sin is. If they class lack of knowledge, temptations, and common mistakes in life that do not break the law of God as sin, then they are right that no man lives free from sin. But if they think one cannot live free from the sins of Galatians 5:19-21 as well as Romans 1:21-32; 6:19; 2Corinthians 12:21; Ephesians 4:19; 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 1Thessalonians 2:3; 4:7 and 2Peter 2:1-22 that will damn the soul, then they are all wrong, for such must be true of anyone who will be saved. Men who argue that no person can live without sin are simply using every excuse under the sun to continue in sin.  They want to make people believe that they are Christians and yet they want to indulge in some sin or bad habit that will condemn them in the end. Men can live free from sin if they get saved from sin and permit Christ to live in their lives by the power of the Holy Spirit. If men live in sin daily then there is not a day in which they are not tindering the condemnation of a broken law and they will be sent to Hell to pay the death penalty for sin.

‘God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?’ many reasons are given in Romans that we should not continue living in sin: Death to sin nullifies it (6:2-3); resurrection from spiritual death (6:4-5); we walk in newness of life (6:4); death to sin and resurrection from sin means walking like Christ (6:5; 1Pet. 2:21-22; 1Jn. 2:6; 4:6, 17); the old man is crucified and dead (6:6; Eph. 4:22-24; 1Jn. 5:18); the body of sin is destroyed, that henceforth we should not sin (6:6); we are freed from sin (6:7, 18, 22); faith counts sin dead (6:8); sin has no dominion over us (6:9); sin not to reign in the body (6:12); the body must not yield to sin (6:13); married to Christ, not sin (7:4); we walk in the Spirit (8:1-4); we are made free from the law of sin (8:2); we are spiritually minded (8:6); Christ is in us, not sin (8:10); we are not debtors to sin (8:12); the Spirit mortifies sin in us (8:13); we have Spirit of freedom (8:15); intercession of Christ and the Holy Spirit keeps us (8:26-27, 34).

Arm Yourselves

1Peter 4:1-4 Forasmuch then as Christ has suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin; That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. For the time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries: Wherein they think it strange that you run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you

‘Arm yourselves likewise with the same mind’ put on the same armour of forgiveness, meekness, gentleness, and complete self-control that Christ had. By exercising these qualities, we enable ourselves to withstand the enemy’s attacks that can come through others or through circumstances on many levels.

‘He that has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin’ he that has mortified the flesh has ceased from sin (Rom. 8:12-13; Col. 3:5-10).

‘The will of God’ always refer to living for God on His moral standards alone, not those set by traditions or society, or our own opinion of what a Christian should look like, so that we can set an example through our daily lives (not preaching) for others to give them hope, thus it will always be important to live godly lives (1:16; 2:21-23; Matt. 5:48) so that we do not cause stumbling through half-truths to others (1 Cor. 10:32; 1Jn. 2:10).

‘Time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles’ this is a picture of Gentile life and indicates that Peter is writing also to the Gentiles and not only to Jews.

‘Walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revelling, banqueting, and abominable idolatries’ eight sins of Jews and Gentiles are mentioned here: Lasciviousness [Greek: aselgeia] every form of lewdness and impurity. Lusts [Greek: epithumia] strong or vehement desire (see Col. 3:5). Excess of wine [Greek: oinophlugia] to be hot or to boil; to be aflame with wine. Drinking of fermented (old wine) is a sin (Pro. 20:1; 21:17; 23:29-25; Isa. 5:11-12, 22; 1Tim. 3:2-3; Tit. 1:7) because it contains alcohol and any form of poisoning of the body is sinful and no sin ever added to the glory of God. We are commanded in the Word in this regard and our bodies are supposed to be the temple of God and we are not allowed to bring damage to it in any way [by any food, drink or outside factors] and we cannot neglect it in any way (1Cor. 6:19-20). Revelling [Greek: komoi] lascivious feasts, boisterous festivity, singing and drinking in honour of idols. Banqueting [Greek: potois] wine feasts or drinking matches. Abominable idolatries – at idol feasts the most impure, obscene, and perverted orgies, and abominable rites were practised. Excess of riot [Greek: asotia] flood of profligacy, sweeping away all rule, order, and restraint before it. Speaking evil of you [Greek: blasphemeo] blaspheming God and man. Translated “speak evil of” (4:4, 14; Rom. 14:16; 1Cor. 10:30; Tit. 3:2; 2Pet. 2:2, 10, 12; Jude 1:8, 10); “revile” (Matt. 27:39); “rail on” (Mark 15:29; Luke 23:39); “report slanderously” (Rom. 3:8); “defame” (1Cor. 4:13); “speak blasphemy” (Matt. 26:65); “blasphemously” (Luke 22:65); “blasphemer” (Acts 19:37); and “blaspheme” (Matt. 9:3; Mark 3:28-29; Luke 12:10; John 10:36; Acts 13:45; 18:6; 26:11; Rom. 2:24; 1Tim. 1:20; 6:1; Tit. 2:5; Jas. 2:7; Rev. 13:6; 16:9, 11, 21).

‘Run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you’ they marvel how you can renounce these fleshly gratifications for something spiritual that you cannot see. Worldly people are always offended when we don’t eat or drink with them and will always comment on this matter because of the guilt that comes from their conscious when their thoughts accuse them (Rom. 2:14-15). Christians ought not to mingle or socialize with people who are not of one mind with regards to what God’s Word says (1Cor.5:9-13; 1Jn. 2:15-17), because we are not to cause offence towards others (Php. 1:10). Only the Holy Spirit convicts of sin (John 16:7-11), no person can successfully convict another person of what is right or wrong. If people stop sinning because of our word, it will never be for the right reasons and they will never be purified in heart by being equipped with the fruit of the Holy Spirit (Gal. 5:22; Php. 1:6).

Bare Our Sins

1Peter 2:24-25 Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes you were healed. For you were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls. 

‘His own self’ Jesus Himself, not another in His place, died for our sins (2:24; 1Cor. 15:3; Gal. 1:4; Matt. 26:28; Acts 20:28).

‘Bare our sins’ He bore the punishment due to our sins. In no other sense could He bear them.

‘Own body’ in the human body prepared by God for Him to become incarnate in (Heb. 10:5).

‘On the tree’ on the cross (Matt. 27:32; Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; Gal. 3:13).

‘That we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness; by whose stripes you were healed’ Three reasons for Christ’s death: That we might be dead to sins (Rom. 6:6-7); that we might live unto righteousness [with no sin] (Rom. 3:26); that we might be healed.

‘Should live unto righteousness’ this means that we should live without sin (Rom. 6; 1Jn. 3). No scripture ever sanctions living in sin as many teach today. Without holiness, no man shall see God (Heb. 12:1-29).

‘By whose stripes you were healed’ physical healing is part of the redemptive work of Christ. By His stripes, we are healed (Isa. 53:5; Matt. 8:17). Two bodily references are made in atonement (at-one-ment with God): Wound [Hebrew: chalal] to wound; bore; slay; pierce (Ps. 109:22; Isa. 51:9; 53:5). This refers to the piercing of the hands, feet, and side. Bruise [Hebrew: daka’] to crumble; beat to pieces; break; bruise; crush; destroy; smite (Job 19:2; Ps. 72:4; 94:5; Isa. 3:15; 53:5, 10). This refers to the stripes by scourging, cuts by thorns, and other physical sufferings, and proves this was part of the work of atonement by which blood was shed. It was by this particular phase of punishment that physical healing was provided for all alike (Isa. 53:5; 1Pet. 2:24).

‘For you were as sheep going astray’ quoted from Isaiah 53:5-6. This is the anticipated confession of men, and the very cause for which the Messiah suffered. ‘Like sheep’ sheep are the most helpless of all animals when they go astray.

‘We have turned every one to his own way’ this has been the way of man ever since the fall. Each one pursues his own interests, makes his own plans, and seeks to gratify his own selfishness, regardless of the interest and good of the whole (Jdg. 17:6; 21:25).

‘As sheep’ people are compared to sheep before salvation (Isa. 53:6; Luke 15:4-6) as well as after it (Matt. 10:16).

‘Shepherd’ Christ is the Good Shepherd and the Overseer of our souls (John 10:6-17; Heb. 13:20-21). ‘Bishop’ [Greek: episkopos] A bishop was a preaching elder (Php. 1:1; 1Tim. 3:2; Tit. 1:7; 1Pet. 2:25). Bishops and presbyters were the same.

Hereunto Were You Called

1Peter 2:21-23 For even hereunto were you called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow his steps: Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judges righteously 

‘For even hereunto were you called; because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow his steps’ Christians are called to suffer and endure hardships, while being without sin (2:22; 1Jn. 2:6), thus following Christ (2Tim. 3:12; John 15:18-21). If you do not know your calling in life: all men were called to walked with God (have a relationship), and to represent Him on earth by living as Christ did on earth so that others can be saved by seeing the life of Christ in us (Eph. 4; Php. 3; 1Jn. 2:6).

‘Example’ a seven-fold example for us to follow, is given of Christ: Sufferings (2:21); sinlessness (2:22); guilelessness (2:22); love when being mocked (2:23); patience in threatening (2:23); resignation to God (2:23); and living in righteousness – that means without sin (2:24; Rom. 6; 1Jn. 3). These are the example according to which a proclaimed Christian should live; you cannot set your own standards for a true believer, but must follow what is commanded in God’s Word. The Word was not given for as to form our own opinion, religion and ideas of ‘what God wants’ the Word was given as instruction with human and godly examples of what exactly to do to live in obedience to God in all things.

‘Steps’ [Greek: ichnos] track or footstep. Only used of: Abraham (Rom. 4:12); Paul and Titus (2Cor. 12:18) and Jesus Christ (2:21).

‘Who did no sin’ Christ was the only sinless human being that ever lived. Mary was a sinner, for she rejoiced in God, her Saviour (Luke 1:47). There is no hint in Scripture that she had an immaculate conception. If she did have, then her parents had to be sinless, and their parents, etc. back to Adam. On the contrary, all men are born in sin aside from Christ, for He is the only one without a human father (Ps. 51:5; Rom. 5:12-21). The reasons Christ have sinless flesh: He had no fall and was therefore sinless; He did not submit to satan and to his spirit and sinful nature (Eph. 2:2; John 8:44; 1Jn. 3:8). He came from the woman but was not of the seed of man (Gen. 3:15; Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7; Matt. 1:18-23; Luke 1:32-35; Rom. 8:3; Gal. 4:4; Php. 2:5-11; John 1:14; 1Tim. 3:16; Heb. 2:9-18). Man is recognized as the head of the race in all Scripture (Gen. 2:20-22; 2Cor. 11:3; Rom. 5:12-21). The iniquity of man, not woman, was passed as a curse upon children (Ex. 20:5; Num. 14:18; Deut. 5:9; Jer. 31:29-30; Ezek. 18:2-4). Mary was merely the means of God in bringing His own Son into a human body. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit, not by man who could not produce sinless offspring. God is holy and cannot produce sinful offspring. This is according to the law of reproduction in Genesis 1:22-28. Thus by means of a woman, God could send Christ in the likeness of the flesh controlled by sin, and yet not of sinful flesh controlled by sin and satan (2:22).

‘Neither was guile found in his mouth’ the 5th and last Old Testament prophecy in 1Peter (2:22; Isa. 53:9). ‘Reviled’ He did not rail on His tormenters or threaten them, but committed His cause to the righteous Judge who will always do right (Gen. 18:25). Four things are noted that Christ did not do: He did not sin (2:22); He did not use guile to cover up (2:22); He did not rail on His enemies (2:23), and He did not threaten His enemies (2:23). Four things are noted that Christ did: He suffered as our example (2:21); He committed His cause to God (2:23); He bore our sins in His own body (2:24); He submitted to stripes to heal men (2:24; Isa. 53:4-6; Matt. 8:16-17).

A Stone of Stumbling

1Peter 2:7-10 Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed. But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that you should show forth the praises of him who has called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. 

‘Stone of stumbling …’ this is the 3rd Old Testament prophecy in 1 Peter (1:8; Isa. 8:14). The reasons why the Jews stumbled at Christ: Because He did not come as a worldly prince to deliver them from the Romans (John 11:48; Acts1:7). Because He was a poor man having no appeal to worldly people (2Cor. 8:9; John 15:19-23; 17:14-16).

Then we have the reasons why the Jews killed Jesus: His kingship (Matt. 2:2-3, 16; John 18:33-40; 19:12-22); for telling the truth (Luke 4:21-29; John 8:40); for healing on the sabbath (Matt. 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-6; John 5:16; 9:16); out of jealousy (Matt. 26:3-4; 27:18; Mark 14:1; 15:10; Luke 22:2; John 11:48); because of their ignorance (Matt. 26:64-66; Mark 14:62-64; John 12:40; Acts 3:17); to fulfil prophecy (Luke 13:33-35; John 12:38-40; 18:31-32; 19:11, 28, 36-37; Acts 2:22-36; 3:18); because He claimed Sonship (John 5:18; 10:24-39; 19:7); because of their unbelief (John 5:38-47; 6:36; 9:40-41; 12:36-38); He claimed to be God (John 8:53-59; 10:33; cp. John 1:1-2; Heb. 1:5-14); for fear of losing their authority (John 11:46-53; 12:10-11, 19).

‘Being disobedient’ this is what made them stumble. Anyone who obeys God will not stumble at Christ. ‘Also they were appointed’ this simply means that people are appointed to stumble if they are determined to be disobedient. God did not choose them to stumble or be disobedient. This was their choice (Matt. 13:15).

Ten symbols of the Messiah are given: A foundation stone (Isa. 28:16; Eph. 2:20); a tried stone (Matt. 21:42-44; Acts 4:11); a precious corner stone (2:4-8); a sure foundation (1Cor. 3:11); a smitten rock (Ps. 78:16; Num. 20:8-11; 1Cor. 10:4); head stone of the corner (Ps. 118:22); rejected stone (Ps. 118:22; Acts 4:11); stumbling stone (Isa. 8:14; Rom. 9:32-33); a living stone (2:4); a rock (stone) of offense (2:8; Isa.8:14).

‘But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, and holy nation, a peculiar people’ Four things about Jewish Christians: A chosen generation (cp. Deut. 7:6); a royal priesthood (cp. Ex. 19:6); an holy nation (cp. Ex. 19:6); a peculiar people, the Greek word peripoiesis meaning purchased, not peculiar as in dress, speech, or manner of life (cp. Deut. 7:6)

‘Praises’ [Greek: arête] only translated praise here, but virtue in Philippians 4:8 and 2Peter 1:3, 5. The word refers to virtuous thoughts, feelings or actions. The virtues Christians are to show before men are the perfections of wisdom, knowledge, justice, truth, love, patience, holiness, goodness, grace, joy, peace, faith, and other attributes and powers of the Divine Trinity. These virtues are to be demonstrated by Christians to angels and men (1:12; 1Cor. 4:9; Eph. 3:9-10) ‘Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy’ this is the 4th Old Testament prophecy in 1Peter (2:10; Hos. 1:9-10; 2:23) describing the mercy the Jews have obtained through Christ.