The Work of the Holy Spirit

John 16:8-15 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: Of sin, because they believe not on me; Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and you see me no more; Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged. I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father has are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you. 

There are 12 offices of the Holy Spirit mentioned in the gospel of John: He is the Begetter of the new birth (3:3, 5); the Life-giver (6:63; Rom. 8:11); the Imparter of power (7:37-39; 14:12-17; Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4-8); the Eternal Comforter or Helper (14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7); the Teacher of Truth (14:17, 26; 15:26; 16:13; 1Jn. 2:20-27); the Reminder of all truth (14:26); the Guide into all truth (16:13); the Revealer of Christ (16:13-15); the Revealer of events (16:13); the Glorifier of Christ (16:14); the Chief Witness for Christ (15:26; 16:13-15; Acts 1:8) and the Convincer of sin, righteousness, and judgment (16:8).

‘Reprove’ is the Greek word elengcho which means to convince, convict, refute, expose, to bring to shame the person reproved. It is found 17 times and translated “convince” (John 8:46; 1Cor. 14:24; Tit. 1:9; Jas. 2:9); “convict” (John 8:9); “tell one’s fault” (Matt. 18:15); “reprove” (Luke 3:19; John 3:20; Eph. 5:11, 13; 2Tim. 4:2); “rebuke” (1Tim. 5:20; Tit. 1:13; 2:15; Heb. 12:5; Jude 1:15; Rev.3:19).

‘The world of sin, because they believe not on me’ World = all men, not only the Jews; Of sin: that unbelief is the foundation of sin and the source of sinfulness that will damn men (Mark 16:16; Luke 8:13; John 3:16-20, 36; 5:24, 38; 8:24; 10:26).

‘Of righteousness’ that man’s righteousness is useless (Isa. 64:6; Rom. 10:3); that Christ is our righteousness (1Cor. 1:30); and that in Him alone and by faith in His atonement can we be righteous (Rom. 3:22-25; 4:1-22; 2Cor. 5:14-21).

Because Jesus went to His Father, and the disciples saw Him no more, the Holy Spirit will them [and all men] in the Truth [Christ = gospel].

‘Of judgment’ that men who believe in Christ will escape the judgment of damnation (John 3:15-20; 5:24); that all who refuse to believe will be damned with satan (Matt. 25:41; John 3:36; Rev. 20:11-15; 21:8).

‘Because the prince of this world is judged’ All unbelievers are assured of judgment because their master has already been defeated on the cross and is helpless to avert his own doom much less theirs (John 12:31; Col. 2:14-17; Rom. 16:20; Rev. 20:10-15).

‘Bear’ the Greek word bastazo which means to carry or bear what is burdensome, not able to understand a matter or receive it calmly (John 19:17; Acts 15:10; Gal. 6:2, 5). It was for the best that Jesus did not tell the disciples that the whole Mosaic system must be set aside; that the sabbath and Jewish festivals will be abolished; that Gentiles must be equal members of the body of Christ; and that many cherished dreams of them about what the Messiah will do when He returns, will not come to pass in their time. He revealed those things to them after the Holy Spirit came (16:13-15).

The Time Shall Come

John 16:1-7 These things have I spoken unto you, that you should not be offended. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever kills you will think that he does God service. And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me. But these things have I told you, that when the time shall come, you may remember that I told you of them. And these things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you. But now I go my way to him that sent me; and none of you ask me, Whither goes thou? But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. 

‘These things have I spoken unto you …’ The 38th New Testament prophecy in John fulfilled and is being fulfilled. ‘Offended’ the Greek word skandalizo which means to stumble, to cause a person to begin to distrust and desert one whom he ought to trust and obey.

‘Put you out of the synagogues’ that is to excommunicate you (John 9:22; 12:42) that whosoever kills you will think that he does God service.

Because they have not known the Father, nor Jesus: their ignorance of God and Christ is the foundation of all religious persecution and intolerance (John 15:21).

Jesus did not tell the disciples these things when He chose them, lest they should have been discouraged; but it was at this time necessary to tell them so they could be on guard when He left them.

‘Whither goes thou?’ This was asked twice before (John 13:36; 14:5), but now their hearts were too full of sorrow to ask again.

It was expedient for the disciples that Jesus went away: for if He did not go away, the Comforter [Holy Spirit] could not come unto them; but when Jesus departed, He did send Him unto them.

It was ‘expedient’ for them that He should go – the Greek word sumphero meaning profitable. It was necessary for Jesus to die and go away or the Spirit cannot come to save men and anoint them to propagate the gospel.

The Holy Spirit is the third person in the Divine Trinity (1Jn. 5:7; Matt. 28:19; 2Cor. 13:14). He has been sent by both the Father and the Son (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7; Luke 24:49; Acts 2:33).

The Comforter

John 15:26-27 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceed from the Father, he shall testify of me: And you also shall bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning.

The 37th New Testament prophecy in John that is fulfilled in Acts 2:1-4 when they and others (120 Acts 1:15) were baptized with the Holy Spirit and with fire.

‘I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth’ Jesus is the baptizer in the Holy Spirit (Matt. 3:11; John 1:31-33).

‘Proceed from the Father’ the Father will send forth in Jesus name or by His authority (John 14:26).

‘He shall testify of me’ The Holy Spirit bears witness by anointing men: for the Apostles who were to preach the gospel (Luke 4:18; Acts 2:11-39; 1Cor. 1:17-18, 23; 2:1-16). In prophesying by edifying, exhorting and comforting (Acts 3:21; 13:1, 32; 21:10; 1Cor. 12:10, 28; 14:3). In the exercise of other gifts (1Cor. 12:10, 30; 14:5, 13, 27). In making audible intercession with groanings which cannot be uttered in words (Rom. 8:26). He will teach us all the words that Christ spoke, therefore He is called the Spirit of truth, He will guide us into all truth [the Word]. He will not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear of Christ He will speak and show the Apostles the things to come. He shall glorify Jesus Christ for He shall receive of Him, and show it all unto us (John 16:13-14).

‘You also shall bear witness’ The disciples also were to speak for Jesus (Acts 1:8, 22) so that others may know Him (Isa. 43:10) and believe in Him and may understand that He is the Messiah, the Saviour of the world. They shall witness that He is God (Isa. 43:12).

The Holy Spirit Promised

John 14:15-19 If you love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it sees him not, neither knows him: but you know him; for he dwells with you, and shall be in you. I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you. Yet a little while, and the world sees me no more; but you see me: because I live, you shall live also.

If you love Jesus, keep His commandments. Be a doer of the Word and not just a hearer. (Jas. 1:22) Live in obedience to the Word.

‘And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you …’ The 33rd New Testament prophecy in John fulfilled and being fulfilled. Jesus became the Mediator between God and man (1Tim. 2:5), and through His mediation and intercession, all blessings of grace shall come to us (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25). ‘Another’ not Christ, but another divine person – the Comforter is the Holy Spirit who is our helper.

‘Abide with you for ever’ for those who stay in Christ, there will always be access to the Holy Spirit who is the one that convinces of sin and reminds us of the Word as long as we don’t quench Him (1Thess. 5:19) or grieve Him (Eph. 4:30) by living in sin. He is the Spirit of the truth because He teaches the Truth [the Word]. The world – unsaved – cannot receive Him. Therefore, all men do not have the Holy Spirit (Rom. 8:9, 14-16; Gal. 4:6; 1Cor. 3:16-17) because they refuse to “see” or understand Him (1Cor. 2:14) or become acquainted with Him by receiving the gospel and permitting His work in their lives (John 1:12; 3:5, 16-20, 36; 5:24; 16:7-15).

‘You know him’ You disciples know the Holy Spirit or have experienced Him, for He dwells in you in a measure and He shall come into your lives in all fullness when you are baptized in the Spirit [that happened about 50 days later]. (John 7:37-39; Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4-8)

The word ‘with’ in verse 17 is the Greek word para which means beside, alongside of, proving that the Spirit was with the disciples. He was even “in” them (Matt. 10:1-8, 20; cp. Mark 6:7-13; Luke 9:1-10; 10:1-20). If He was in them and yet shall be in them it could only refer to receiving the Spirit in greater, baptismal measure as Christ had (John 3:34). Christ came to give all disciples this fullness of the Spirit (Matt. 3:11; John 1:31-33; 7:37-39; Luke 11:13; 24:49; Acts 1:4-8; 2:16-21, 33, 38-39; 5:32; Gal. 3:14). The doctrine of interpenetration does not mean physical entrance into, but union with, so the idea is that there is a measure and a fullness, a partial union with and a complete union with the Spirit.

‘Comfortless’ is the Greek word orphanos. Disciples of a particular teacher were called his children and upon his death, they were considered orphans. Christ calls His disciples children (John 13:33) and now promises that He will not leave them orphans.

‘I will come to you’ He did so as promised after His resurrection (John 20:1-31; Acts 1:3). ‘Yet a little while’ it was about 20 hours when He would be taken down from the cross. Because He was resurrected they will also one day be resurrected. His resurrection will be a pledge and proof of ours (1Cor. 15:1-58).

Rivers of Living Water

John 7:37-39 In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.) 

‘The last day, that great day of the feast’ it was the eighth day, the great day of the feast because it was a day of great assembly and offering sacrifices for Israel. The first seven days they professed to offer sacrifices for other nations (Lev. 23:34-36). On this day a priest drew water from the pool of Siloam in a golden vessel and brought it to the temple. When the morning sacrifice was on the altar he poured this water mingled with wine upon it, while the people were singing with great joy. It was perhaps at this time that the Lord made His great prophecy of the fullness of the Holy Spirit in the life of each believer in Him.

The 20th New Testament prophecy that is being fulfilled for those who believe all that Jesus has done and commanded in that they will receive the Holy Spirit after the new birth. ‘Any man’ of every race and generation from the beginning of the fulfilment of this prophecy can experience the ‘rivers of living waters’ (Acts 2:38-39; 5:32; Gal. 3:14).

The conditions of receiving the Holy Spirit as given in verse 37, are first to ‘thirst’ which means the ardent, eager, famishing, keen, and all-consuming craving and passion of the soul for complete union with God and the fullness of the Spirit (Psa. 42:2; 63:1; 143:6; Isa. 41:17; 44:3). Secondly, to come unto Him meaning the complete surrender of the life to do the whole will of God as light (knowledge of the Word) is received (Isa. 55:1; Matt. 11:28-30; 1Jn. 1:7). Thirdly, to drink, which means the whole-hearted reception into one’s life of the gifts, the fruit, and operations of the Holy Spirit (1Cor. 12:4-13; Gal. 5:22-23). And lastly, it states in verse 38, to believe on Him which means to believe in and obey to the letter the whole gospel program (John 14:12-15; Matt. 28:20; Mark 16:15-20; Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4-8; 5:32).

‘Out of his belly’ the Greek word for belly is koilia which refers to hollow, bowels, belly, the midst of a thing. Here it means the innermost being or part of man; the soul and spirit, as the seat of the intellect, emotions and desires (Psa. 31:9; Pro. 18:8; 20:27; John 7:38).  ‘Shall flow rivers of living water’ – out of the believer will flow unlimited power to do the works of Christ as John 14: 12 states. It will be a constant flow from the believer of the Spirit without measure – the measure Christ experienced.

I Am the Bread of Life

John 6:30-35 They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work? Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. 

The Jews questioned Christ and asked Him to give them a sign to prove that He is the Messiah and the Son of God. To them, His multiplying of bread didn’t prove it, because Moses gave Israel bread for 40 years and He did not claim to be the Messiah or the Son of God.

Jesus answers them that Moses did not give them the true bread that feeds the soul and sustains eternal life, but mere temporal bread that feeds the body only (Exo. 16:15; Psa. 78:24). They still understood Him as speaking of temporal food.

John 6:35 is the twelfth New Testament prophecy in John that is being fulfilled. Jesus is described as seven typologies in John: “I am the Bread of Life” (John 6:35-51); “I am the Light of the World” (John 8:12; 9:5); “I am the Door of the Sheep” (John 10:7-9) “I am the Good Shepherd” (John 10:11-14); “I am the Resurrection and Life” (John 11:25); “I am the Way, Truth, and Life” (John 14:6); “I am the True Vine” (John 15:1-6).

Will never thirst because he can have “rivers of living water” flowing out of his innermost being (John 7:37-39). The abundant fullness of the Holy Spirit will meet every need and solve every problem (Matt. 17:20; 21:22; John 14:12-17, 26; 15:7, 16, 26; 16:7-15; Acts 1:4-8; 8:26).

Everlasting Life

John 6:26-27 Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, You seek me, not because you saw the miracles, but because you did eat of the loaves, and were filled. Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed. 

The next day, the crowd from the previous day saw that there was no other boat there, except the one His disciples entered with, and that Jesus did not go with His disciples in the boat, but that His disciples left alone. When they, therefore, saw that Jesus was not there, neither His disciples, they also went to Capernaum by ship, seeking Jesus.

When they found Him on the other side of the sea, they asked Him when He came over. Jesus answered them that they seek Him not because they saw miracles, but because He gave them food and they ate; not as being convinced by visible miracles, which should lead godly men to acknowledge Him as Messiah, but as by appetite, which leads sensual men like beasts through the impulse of want and supply.

We get eternal life now and keep it forever if we meet the following conditions: Come to Christ (John 6:37, 44, 45, 65); know God and Christ (John 17:2-3); cause no offense (Matt. 18:8-9); forsake all (Matt. 19:27-29; Mark 10:28-30); overcome sin (Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 3:5, 12, 21); live free from sin (Rom. 5:21; 6:16-23; 8:1-13; Tit. 2:11-14); fight the good fight of faith; lay hold on it (1Tim. 6:12, 19); be sober and hope to the end for it (Tit. 1:2; 3:7; 1Pet. 1:5, 9, 13); endure temptations (Jas. 1:12); love everybody (1Jn. 3:14-15); keep yourself in the love of God, looking for eternal life (Jude 1:20-24); be faithful unto death (Rev. 2:10; Heb. 12:14-15); believe and obey the gospel (John 3:15-19, 36; 4:14; 5:24; 6:40, 47, 54; 2Cor. 5:17; Rom. 1:5); be born again, hear Christ, and follow Him (John 3:1-36; 10:27-29).

BUT eternal life does not become an unforfeitable eternal possession until we enter into it (Matt. 7:13; 18:8-9; 19:17; Rom. 6:22); receive it (Rom. 6:23; Jas. 1:12; 1Pet. 1:13; Rev. 2:10); reap it (Gal. 6:7-8); and inherit it in the world to come (Matt. 19:27-29; Mark 10:28-30; Luke 18:28-30), and at the end of this life (Rom. 6:22).

‘Him has God the Father sealed’ – confirmed by giving Him the Holy Spirit without measure (John 3:33-34).

Resurrection of Life

John 5:28-29 Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. 

The ninth New Testament prophecy in John: ‘The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live’ are fulfilled and continuously being fulfilled as men turn to God for salvation. They that hear shall live (Acts 3:19; Rom. 10:9-17). ‘So hath He given to the Son to have life in himself’ – As God, this could not be true, but as the Son of man all life-giving powers and all authority to redeem and judge were given by the Father through the Holy Spirit (Isa. 11:2; 42:1; 61:1; Acts10:38; Mat. 12:28).

The tenth New Testament prophecy in John is unfulfilled ‘for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.’ Jesus is saying that we must not marvel at His power to resurrect souls from death in sin (John 5:25; Eph. 2:1-9) and that He will also resurrect dead bodies from the grave (John 5:28-29; 1Cor. 15:20-23; Rev. 20:4-15).

Only the bodies die at physical death (Jas. 2:26) and only the bodies go into the graves to await physical resurrection (John 5:28-29). All scriptures on the future resurrection of the dead refer to the bodies that sleep in the graves, not to the souls and spirits which are immortal and do not sleep in the graves. The righteous are in a conscious state in heaven (2Cor. 5:8; Eph. 4:8-10; Php. 1:21-24; Heb. 12:22-23; Rev. 6:9-11) and the wicked are conscious in hell (Luke 16:19-21; Isa. 14:9; Rev. 20:11-15). The souls and spirits of all men will be brought back from heaven or hell to the place where the bodies were buried and God will then resurrect them so that they will hear the voice of the Son of God and come forth to live forever in heaven or hell (Dan. 12:2; 1Thes. 4:13-18). The bodies cannot come forth out of the graves lifeless and dead, so when the souls and spirits reunite with the bodies in the resurrection they will come forth like Christ did when His soul and spirit came back from hell to the body in the tomb and He came out of the grave (Psa. 16:10; Mat. 12:40; 28:1-6; Eph. 4:8-10).

The righteous that ‘have done good’ (Greek: poieo, from which we get the word poem) refers not so much to individual acts of goodness as to character, nature, and conduct. The righteous that are ‘blessed and holy’ (Rev. 20:4-6); that ‘are Christ’s’ (1Cor. 15:23, 51-58; Gal. 5:24); that are ‘worthy’ (Luke 21:36); that are ‘in Christ’ (1Thes. 4:16-17; 2Cor. 5:17); that are in ‘the way, the truth, and the life’ (John 14:1-6); that have purified themselves ‘even as He is pure’ (1Jn. 3:2-3); that are without spot or wrinkle and without blemish and are the body of Christ (Eph. 1:22-23; 5:27; 1Cor. 12:13; Col. 1:18, 24) – these will be resurrected to eternal life 1,000 years before the wicked (John 5:29; Dan. 12:2). The wicked will be resurrected to eternal punishment and damnation 1,000 years after the resurrection of the righteous (Dan. 12:2; Rev. 14:9-11; 20:4-6, 11-15; 21:8; 22:15).

The Gift of God

John 4:10-15  Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knew the gift of God, and who it is that say to thee, Give me to drink; thou would have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water. The woman say unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water? Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle? Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drink of this water shall thirst again: But whosoever drink of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life. The woman say unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw. 

‘The gift of God’ according to the Word is Christ (2Cor. 9:15; Heb. 6:4; Rom. 8:32); the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38-39; 8:20; 10:45; 11:17); Spiritual gifts (Rom. 1:11; 11:29; 12:6; Eph. 3:7; 4:7); Salvation (Rom. 5:15-21; Acts 4:12; Eph.2:8-9); Eternal life (Rom. 6:23; John 10:27-29); Divine call (1Cor. 7:7; Rom. 12:3-6; Eph. 3:7; 4:7); Good gifts (Jas. 1:17; Mat. 7:11); Ministers (Eph. 4:8-11).

‘The living water’ – ten gifts of this Gospel: Grace and truth (John 1:17); the Living Water (John 4:10); the Holy Spirit (John 7:37-39; 14:16); a perfect example (John 13:15); God’s Word (John 13:34; 17:8, 14); the glory of God (John 17:22); the true bread (John 6:32); Eternal life (John 6:33; 10:27-29); Peace (John 14:27); and answers to prayer (John 15:16; 16:23). The woman did request for this gift of God that was here the living water that Christ offered to her.

Eastern travellers frequently carry a leather bucket with which to draw water from public wells. This well was about 32 metres deep, 2.7m in diameter and had 4.5m of water. It was cut out of solid rock and showed the engineering skill of ancient times.

Behold, the Lamb of God

John 1:29-34  The next day John see Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me. And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptize with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God. 

John the Baptist saw Christ and proclaimed “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.” This is the first New Testament prophecy fulfilled in John. Lamb of God is a symbol of Christ, mentioned thirty-two times (Isa. 53:7; John 1:36; Acts 8:32; 1Pet. 1:19; Rev. 5:6-13; 6:1, 16; 7:9-17; 12:11; 13:8; 14:1-10; 15:3; Rev. 17:14; 19:7-9; 21:9-27; 22:1-3). The Greek word for taketh away is airo, which means to bear in the sense of removing sin; doing away with the guilt and punishment (1Pet. 2:24; Psa. 103:12; 1Jn. 3:5). The Greek word for sin is hamartia, which means missing the mark; always in a moral sense – a sin, whether by omission or commission, in thought, word, or deed. Christ came to teach men how to shoot straight – to hit the moral bull’s eye every time (Tit. 2:11-14; 1Jn. 2:1-2, 29; 3:9; 5:1-4, 5:18).

‘For he was before me’ – Christ lived before John as the second person of the Trinity “whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting” Micah 5:2 (See also Isa. 9:6-7; Heb. 1:8; Rev. 1:8.) John did not know Jesus, but he did know the Father who sent Jesus (v33). The Greek word for manifest is phaneroo, which means to bring to light. Here, it means to introduce the Messiah to Israel (John 1:11; Matt. 15:24).

John bare record, the Greek word martureo means bearing witness. There was seven witnesses to the Messiah: The Father (John 5:30-38; 8:13-18); the Son (John 5:17-27; 8:14; 18:37); the Holy Spirit (John 15:26; 16:13-15); the written Word (John 1:45; 5:38, 46); Divine works (John 5:17, 36; 10:25; 14:11; 15:24); John the Baptist (John 1:7,32-34; 5:33-35); and the Disciples (John 15:27; 19:35; 21:24).

The Greek word for abode is meno which means abide, dwell, remain. Occurs 41 times in John and only 12 times in the other gospels.

‘He that sent me’ is a clear reference to the Trinity. The Son he did not know; the Father he did know; and the Spirit he saw coming from the Father upon the Son (Matt. 3:16-17; Lk.3:22). The Greek word for see is eidon which means to see; not only the mere act of looking but the actual perception of the object. Thus, not only have the Father and Son been seen with human eyes as separate and distinct persons at the same time and place (Dan. 7:9-14; Acts 7:55; Rev. 5:7; 7:10), but the Holy Spirit as a separate person from both the Father and the Son has been seen.

‘Spirit descending, and remaining on him’ is a fulfilment of Isaiah 11:2; 42:1; 61:1 and recorded in Matthew 3:16-17; Mark 1:10 and Luke 3:22. Christ is the one who baptizes in the Holy Spirit (Matt. 3:11; Lk. 3:16; 24:49; John 7:37-39; 15:16-17, 26; Acts 1:4-8; 11:16).