Not the Author of Confusion

1Corinthians 14:27-33 If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret. But if there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in the church; and let him speak to himself, and to God. Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge. If any thing be revealed to another that sits by, let the first hold his peace. For you may all prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all may be comforted. And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets. For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints. 

‘Unknown tongue’ – there is no word in the Greek for unknown here. No language spoken in any place in the universe is actually unknown to the people who speak it. The only sense in which tongues or languages are spoken by the ability of the gift of tongues is unknown is that the speaker himself does not know the language or languages which he speaks (14:2).

‘Let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret.’ In congregational meetings, the command is that no more than three messages in tongues should be allowed in any one service, and that, provided they are truly interpreted. The order should be by course with the first message being interpreted before a second, if any, is given. One who thus speaks shall not interpret himself, his words must be interpreted by another gifted to do so (14:13). Even if more than one person speaks the rule is no more than a total of three messages in a single gathering. After that, they must remain silent regardless of how much they seem to be inspired. If there is no interpretation to the first message, they likewise must remain silent (14:27-28, 32). These laws concerning the gifts of tongues are to be obeyed as the commandments of God (14:32-33, 37-38).

‘Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge.’ Prophets are also to speak two or three messages in turn letting others judge whether or not they have spoken the truth. Both kinds of messages (tongues and prophecy) are to be judged as to their truth. The basis of judgment is the written revelation of God (Deut. 18:10-12, 20; Isa. 8:19-20; Rev. 22:18-19). If any message in tongues or prophecy does not harmonize with the Bible or does not come to pass, then it is to be judged false and the person said to be speaking by his own spirit (13:1-3; Deut. 13:1-9; 18:20-23; Jer. 23:25-29, 32; Ezek. 13:2-3).

‘If any thing be revealed to another that sits by, let the first hold his peace.’ Everything revealed to a person is not a divine revelation. This is why everything must be judged.

‘All prophesy’ – men and women were permitted to prophesy (11:1-16; Acts 2:16-21). ‘The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.’ Among people who have inspirational experiences of prophecy, tongues, and interpretation of tongues, it is very easy for one to claim that the Holy Spirit is moving upon him and that he should not quench the Spirit (1Thess. 5:19). This attitude of being determined to obey the Spirit leads to abuse of such gifts over and over, causing much confusion in gatherings. Let no man claim to be moved by the Holy Spirit who acts disorderly and causes confusion, for God is not the author of such (14:32-33).

Done Unto Edifying

1Corinthians 14:26  How is it then, brethren? when you come together, every one of you has a psalm, has a doctrine, has a tongue, has a revelation, has an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying. 

‘When you come together, every one of you has a psalm, has a doctrine, has a tongue, has a revelation, has an interpretation.’ Congregational activities: singing of psalms (Eph. 5:1-33; Col. 3:1-25); teaching doctrines (Acts 2:14, 42; 8:4-5, 35; 10:33-44; 1Cor. 1:18-24; 2Tim. 4:2-4); tongues and interpretations (1Cor. 14:27); prophecies (1Cor. 14:3, 24-25, 29-30); exhortations by laymen (Heb. 10:25); the Lord’s Supper (1Cor 10:16-17; 11:17-34; Jude 1:12); scripture reading (Luke 4:16; Col. 4:16; 1Thess. 5:27; 1Tim. 4:13); prayers (Acts 2:42; 4:24-31; etc.); exercise of other gifts – healing, faith, and miracles (Acts 3:6; 5:12-16; 8:5-8; 15:12; 19:11); exercise of discernment and judgment (Acts 5:1-11; 13:6-11; 1Cor. 5:1-13); baptism (Acts 2:41; 8:12; 16:33); laying on of hands for enduement of the Holy Spirit and gifts (Acts 8:14-19; 9:17-18; 19:1-7; 1Tim. 4:14; 2Tim. 1:6; Heb. 6:1-20); collection of tithes and offerings (Acts 11:29; 1Cor. 16:2); disputings (Acts 19:8-10; Gal. 2:1-21); congregational trials (Matt. 18:15-18; 1 Cor. 5-6; Acts 5:1-42; 11:1-30; Gal. 2:1-14).

God is In You of a Truth

1Corinthians 14:22-25 Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not: but prophesying serves not for them that believe not, but for them which believe. If therefore the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that you are mad? But if all prophesy, and there come in one that believes not, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all: And thus are the secrets of his heart made manifest; and so falling down on his face he will worship God, and report that God is in you of a truth. 

‘Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not: but prophesying serves not for them that believe not, but for them which believe.’ This is Paul’s explanation of the main purpose of tongues. They are designed as a sign to unbelievers that through their miraculous exercise sinners might see the manifestation of the supernatural (Isa. 28:11-12). Examples of this are found in Acts 2:1-11; 10:44-48; 19:1-7 and 1Corinthians 14:1-40.

‘Will they not say that you are mad?’ This will naturally be the result of such misuse of tongues.

‘And so falling down on his face he will worship God, and report that God is in you of a truth.’ The chief end of all gifts and worship services is to bring people to repentance and surrender to God. This is the chief purpose of the death of Christ (John 3:16).’

In Understanding Be Men

1Corinthians 14:20-21 Brethren, be not children in understanding: howbeit in malice be you children, but in understanding be men. In the law it is written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, said the Lord. 

‘Be not children in understanding: howbeit in malice be you children, but in understanding be men.’ Three stages of human growth are mentioned: [1] The Greek word nepios, meaning an infant who cannot yet speak and who knows nothing of sin (the verb nepiazo is translated “be you children” in 1Corinthians 14:20). [2] The Greek word paidion, a child beginning schooling to receive their first instructions. [3] The Greek word teleios, a man of mature age and thought; a man of growth and understanding. In other words, don’t be as little children in understanding. In malice be infants who cannot speak and who knows nothing of sin, but in understanding be people of maturity and growth.

‘Law’ – the law was a term used by Jews to express the whole Scriptures of the law, the prophets, and the psalms (Luke 24:44; John 10:34; 15:25), which we call the Old Testament today. ‘…written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord.’ This is the 5th and last Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in 1 Corinthians (Isa. 28:11-12). This prophecy reveals that God intended over 700 years before Christ to speak to people with stammering lips and other languages.

Peace Be With You

1Peter 5:12-14 By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein you stand. The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, salutes you; and so doth Marcus my son. Greet you one another with a kiss of charity. Peace be with you all that are in Christ Jesus. Amen. 

‘Silvanus’ the same as Silas (2Cor. 1:19; 1Thess. 1:1; 2Thess. 1:1). Paul’s companion on his second missionary journey. He took part in the founding of the congregations in Macedonia (Acts 15:40-18:18). He was a chief man in the congregation at Jerusalem. Took Peter’s letter to Asia Minor (5:12).

‘The church that is at Babylon’ the congregation of believers at Babylon, not the modern version of churches as we know it today.

‘Babylon’ this refers to the city of Babylon on the River Euphrates, the only literal Babylon mentioned in Scripture. It is a historical fact that Babylon was still in existence at that time and that there were many Jews there. Josephus writes of Babylon about the same time.

‘Marcus’ this is John Mark, a convert of Peter and the author of the Gospel of Mark. He was the nephew of Barnabas (Col. 4:10) and a disciple of Jesus (Acts 12:12). Paul and Barnabas took him on the first missionary journey but he got homesick and left the party (Acts 12:25; 13:5, 13). Paul and Barnabas separated over Mark when they started on the second missionary journey (Acts 15:33-39). He later worked with Paul (Col. 4:10-11; 2Tim. 4:11; Phm. 1:24). He was not the actual son of Peter, but a son in the faith in the same way that Timothy and Titus were sons of Paul (1Tim. 1:2; Tit. 1:4).

‘Greet you one another with a kiss of charity’ this was the eastern greeting, as well as a way that the Christian believers greeted one another (5:14; Rom. 16:16; 1Cor. 16:20; 2Cor. 13:12; 1Thess. 5:26).

‘Peace be with you’ to have the peace of God one must be in Christ Jesus, that means to be in unity with Him and of one mind with His Word. We must permit the peace of God to garrison or keep your heart and mind through Jesus Christ (Php. 4:7) without allowing the cares of this world to consume our hearts and minds. Men have peace societies, temples, and plans, but arm for war all the while. They killed the Prince of Peace (Acts 4:27) and ignore Him still, so they will have no peace until He comes to reign (Ps. 2:1-12; 1Thess. 5:3; 1Cor. 15:24-28). In John 14:27 we have the following reassurance of Christ: “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world gives, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.” To maintain this peace we must not allow our hearts to be troubled (John 14:1) and not be afraid or fearful (2Tim. 1:7).

Be Sober and Vigilant

1Peter 5:8-11 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walks about, seeking whom he may devour: Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world. But the God of all grace, who has called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that you have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. 

‘Sober’ [Greek: nepho] to live soberly, to drink no intoxicants; live soberly and righteously (Tit. 2:11-12). Translated be sober (1:13; 5:8; 1Thess. 5:6, 8) and watch (4:7; 2Tim. 4:5). It was counted a disgrace even among the heathen to be drunk in the day, hence the admonition to live as children of light and of the day (1Thess. 5:5-8).

‘Vigilant’ [Greek: gregoreo] to be awake. Translated “vigilant” (5:8); “wake” (1Thess. 5:10); “watchful” (Rev. 3:2); and “watch” 20 times (Matt. 24:42-43; 25:13; Acts 20:31; 1Cor. 16:13, Col. 4:2; 1Thess. 5:6; Rev. 3:3; 16:15; etc.). Never be off your guard. Be ready every moment to resist the devil (5:9; Jas. 4:7; Eph. 4:27).

‘Adversary’ [Greek: antidikos] an opponent in a suit; properly the defendant, but also the plaintiff or the one who brings suit.

‘Devil’ twenty-one names and titles of satan: Devil (5:8; Matt. 4:1-11; Eph. 6:11); adversary (5:8; 1Tim. 5:14); satan (Luke 10:18; 11:18; Rev. 12:9); Belial (2Cor. 6:15; Deut. 13:13); Lucifer (Isa. 14:12-14); dragon (Rev. 12:3-17; 13:2-11; 20:2); serpent (2Cor. 11:3; Rev. 12:9); enemy (Matt. 13:39; Luke 10:19); tempter (Matt. 4:3; 1Thess. 3:5); wicked one (Matt. 13:19; 1Jn. 5:18); Beelzebub (Matt. 10:25; 12:24); the god of this world (2Cor. 4:4); the prince of this world (John 12:31); accuser of the brethren (Rev. 12:10); prince of the power of the air (Eph. 2:1-3; 5:12); the anointed cherub (Ezek. 28:11-17); angel of light (2Cor. 11:14); prince of devils (Matt. 12:24); the thief (John 10:10); king over all the children of pride (Job 41:34); leviathan (Job 41:1; Isa. 27:1).

‘Roaring lion’ seven things satan is compared to a roaring lion (5:8); a fowler (Ps. 91:3); fowls (Matt. 13:4, 19); a wolf (John 10:12); a thief (John 10:10); a serpent (Rev. 12:9; 20:3); a great red dragon (Rev. 12:3-12).

‘Walks about, seeking whom he may devour’ clear examples of how satan seeks to devour believers as clearly seen in Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7. He cannot devour just anyone therefore he constantly seeks those who will allow him through disobedience and ignorance of God Word.

‘Devour’ [Greek: katapino] to gulp down. Translated “devour” (5:8); “drown” (Heb. 11:29); “swallow” (Matt. 23:24); and “swallow up” (1Cor. 15:54; 2Cor. 2:7; 5:7; Rev. 12:16). It is not everyone that satan can gulp down. Those who obey the eight commands of 1Peter 5:5-9, cannot be swallowed up by him.

‘Whom resist stedfast in the faith’ this method of satanic defeat is open to every child of God (Jas. 4:7).

‘Same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world’ these refer to persecutions of Christians in all the world and not to diseases. The word for afflictions means the same as the sufferings of Christ in 1Peter 5:1, and not to sicknesses and diseases. It is [Greek: pathema] a hardship or pain; subjectively an emotion or influence – and it is not necessary for Christians to be sick in order to enjoy the blessings of 1Peter 5:10. ‘Make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you’ four blessings from suffering persecutions are given: (1) Perfection – to be perfect (2Cor. 13:11). The Greek word katartizo meaning to adjust; put in order again; restore; repair; settle by mediation. Translated “mend” (Matt. 4:21; Mark 1:19); “restore” (Gal. 6:1); fit (Rom. 9:22); “prepare” (Heb. 10:1-39); “frame” (Heb. 9:3); “perfectly joined together” (1Cor. 1:10); “be and make perfect” (5:10; Matt. 21:16; Luke 6:40; 1Thess. 3:10; 2Cor. 13:11; Heb. 13:21). (2) Establishment in the faith [Greek: sterizo] strengthen (Luke 22:32; Rev. 3:2); establish (5:10; 2Pet. 1:12; Rom. 1:11; 16:25; 1Thess. 3:2, 13; 2Thess. 2:17; 3:3; Jas. 5:8); fix (Luke 16:26); and set (Luke 9:51). (3) Spiritual strength [Greek: sthenos] to bind together and strengthen so there will be no danger of warping, splitting, or falling apart. (4) Settling or grounding one in the faith [Greek: themelioo] having a good foundation.

Humble Yourselves

1Peter 5:5-7 Likewise, you younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resists the proud, and gives grace to the humble. Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time: Casting all your care upon him; for he cares for you.

‘Submit yourselves unto the elder …’ eight commands were given to Christians in verses 5-9: Let the younger submit to the elder (5:5); all submit to one another (5:5); be clothed with humility (5:5); humble yourselves to God (5:6); cast all your care upon God (5:7); be sober (5:8); be vigilant (5:8); resist satan in the faith (5:9).

‘Humility’ [Greek: tapeinophrosune] translated “humility” (5:5; Col. 2:18, 23); “humility of mind” (Acts 20:19); “humbleness of mind” (Col. 3:12); “lowliness” (Eph. 4:2); and “lowliness of mind” (Php. 2:3). Humility is the secret to the following things: The glory of the creature (Luke 17:10; Rev. 4:11); redemption (Php. 2:5-8); riches and honour (Pro. 15:33; 22:4; Matt. 5:3); fellowship (Isa. 57:15; 66:2); soul rest (Matt. 11:29); personal salvation (Matt. 18:3; Luke 18:1-43); greatness (Matt. 20:26-27; Luke 22:26); exaltation (Matt. 23:12; Luke 14:11); revelation (Matt. 11:25; Luke 10:21); unity (5:5; Eph. 4:1-3; 5:21); victorious Christian living (Rom. 12:10, 16; 1Cor. 13:1-13; Gal. 5:26; Php. 2:1-4; Col. 3:5-14; 1Jn. 4:20; 1Tim. 1:15; Tit. 2:11-14); faith (Mat. 8:8; 15:28; John 4:50).

‘For God resists the proud, and gives grace to the humble’ quoted from Proverbs 3:34 and repeated in James 4:6.

‘Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God’ mourners and penitents used to lie on the ground and roll themselves in the dust (Jas. 4:10). When forgiven, penitents arose from the earth and clothed themselves in clean and better garments. People are privileged to humble themselves and seek mercy or exalt themselves and refuse mercy. Mercy is the result of the right attitude, and hardening is the result of stubbornness or the wrong attitude toward God (Rom. 9:18). Humble and godly people go through life with as little show and parade as possible (Rom. 12:16).

Feed the Flock

1Peter 5:1-4 The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; Neither as being lords over God’s heritage, but being ensamples to the flock. And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, you shall receive a crown of glory that fades not away. 

‘Elders’ [Greek: presbuteros] presbyters, bishops, pastors, and overseers of the churches In the Gospels and Acts it generally refers to the Sanhedrin (Matt. 15:2; 16:21; 21:23; 26:3; Acts 4:5, 8, 23). In the early stages of the body of Christ, elders were the ministers and deacons, or preaching elders and business elders of the local congregations (Acts 11:30; 14:23; 16:4; 20:17, 28; 21:18; 1Tim. 5:17; Tit. 1:5; Jas. 5:14). All apostles were elders (Acts 11:30; 1Pet. 5:1; 2Jn. 1:1; 3Jn. 1:1), but all elders were not apostles (Acts 15:2, 4, 6, 22, 23; 16:4). The elders of Acts 20:17 were the overseers of Acts 20:28. The elders of 1Timothy 5:17; Titus 1:5-10 and 1Peter 5:1-2 were preaching elders or bishops. The business elders were deacons (Acts 6:1-15). Bishops and deacons are mentioned in Philippians 1:1 and 1Timothy 3:1-13. The word presbuteros is also used of older men and women (Luke 15:25; John 8:9; Acts 4:22; 17:1-34; 1Tim. 5:2). It is used also of heavenly ranks (Rev. 4:4, 10; 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 7:11, 13; 11:16; 14:3; 19:4). It is found 68 times and is translated “elder” except in John 8:9 and Acts 2:17; 4:22.

‘Elder’ [Greek: sumpresbuteros] a fellow elder; one on the same level with yourselves. Peter was not the first pope, the prince of the apostles, or the head of the church, as is falsely claimed by false religions, because he certainly missed the opportunity here of making this clear to all believers. Five things that Peter did claim to be: A servant of Jesus Christ (2Pet. 1:1); an apostle of Jesus Christ (1Pet. 1:1); a fellow elder (1Pet. 5:1); a witness of the sufferings of Christ (1Pet. 5:1; Acts 5:32) and a partaker of the glory (1Pet. 5:1).

‘Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly’ six commands to the elders (5:2-3): Feed [with the Word of God] the flock of God, but don’t fleece them. Take oversight of the flock of God. Serve God and His flock willingly. Serve readily, not for personal gain. Do not be lords over God’s heritage. Be examples to the flock.

‘Feed the flock of God’ Peter was commanded this by Jesus Christ in person as we see in John 21:15 “Feed my lambs” and verses 16 and 17: “Feed my sheep” [Greek: bosko] to feed, tend a flock, provide pasture for, take care of, guide, lead, defend, govern, and shepherd My lambs.

‘Filthy lucre’ the Greek word aischrokerdos that means eagerness for base gain.

‘Lords over God’s heritage’ not exercising lordship or rulership over the flock that is under you, but being examples in utter humility and service. ‘Ensamples’ [Greek: tupos] example (5:3; Php. 3:17; 1Cor. 10:6, 11; 1Thess. 1:7; 2Thess. 3:9; 1Tim. 4:12); pattern (Tit. 2:7; Heb. 8:5); manner (Acts 23:25); fashion (Acts 7:44); form (Rom. 6:17); figure (Acts 7:43; Rom. 5:14); and print (John 20:25).

‘Shepherd’ Jesus Christ is the “when the chief Shepherd shall appear.” Hebrew 13:20 says: “our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep.” Ten titles of Christ: The shepherd (Gen. 49:24; Zech. 13:7; Matt. 26:31; Mark 14:27); my shepherd (man’s, Ps. 23:1); o shepherd of Israel (Ps. 80:1; Isa. 40:11; 63:11); one shepherd (Ezek. 34:23; Ezek. 37:24); My shepherd (God’s, Zech. 13:7); the shepherd of the sheep (John 10:2); the good shepherd (John 10:11, 14); great shepherd of the sheep (Heb. 13:20); the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls (2:25); the chief Shepherd (5:4).

‘Crown of glory that fades not away’ crowns are laid up for all who prove true, but possessed of none until time of reward. Ten crowns are mentioned in Scripture, of which five will be given to believers at the judgment seat of Christ (2Cor. 5:10) after the Rapture: Crown of honour (Pro. 12:4; 17:6; Est. 8:15; Job 19:9); crown of kings (2Sam. 12:30; Est. 1:11; 2:17; Rev. 19:12-16); High Priest’s crown (Ex. 29:6); a crown of pride (Isa. 28:1-5); the crown of thorns (Matt. 27:29; Mark 15:17; John 19:2-5); crown of glory (5:4; Pro. 4:9; 16:31; Isa. 62:3); crown of righteousness (2Tim. 4:8); the crown of life (Jas. 1:12; Rev. 2:10); incorruptible crown (1Cor. 9:25); soul winner’s crown (1Thess. 2:19).

Them that Suffer

1Peter 4:15-19 But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men’s matters. Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear? Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator. 

‘Busybody’ the inspector of another; meddling in the affairs of others and forgetting his own (Lev. 19:16; Pro. 20:3; 2Thess. 3:11-12; 1Tim. 5:13).

Christian suffering does not consist of suffering for murder or as a thief, for being an evildoer or a busybody (4:15); or for suffering for any crime listed in Romans 1:18-32; 1Corinthians 6:9-11 and Galatians 5:19-21.

‘Christian’ this so-often misused word means Christ-like or to be like Christ. The meaning of this definition are clearly explained in 1Peter 2:21-23 when He is given as the example for us to follow in.

‘Judgment’ [Greek: krima] meaning judgment, damnation and punishment. If the righteous are found sinning He judges them first, and if they are found righteous He delivers them from judgment (Gen. 18:23-32; 19:22; Ex. 14:13-31; Ezek. 9:1-11; etc.). The idea here is that if God will punish the righteous when they sin, He will surely punish the ungodly. If the ones who are righteous are scarcely saved, there is no possible hope of sinners being saved.

‘Let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator’ let them that suffer for well-doing endure it and commit themselves to God who is faithful to avenge all such (Heb. 10:30-31). ‘The will of God’ always refers to living for God on His moral standards alone, not those set by traditions or society, or our own opinion of what a Christian should look like, so that we can set an example through our daily lives (not preaching) for others to give them hope, thus it will always be important to live godly lives (1:16; 2:21-23; Matt. 5:48) so that we do not cause stumbling through half-truths to others (1 Cor. 10:32; 1Jn. 2:10).

Christian Suffering

1Peter 4:12-14 Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you: But rejoice, inasmuch as you are partakers of Christ’s sufferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, you may be glad also with exceeding joy. If you be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are you; for the spirit of glory and of God rests upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. 

‘Fiery’ [Greek: purosis] burning. ‘Trial’ the Greek word poorosis meaning ignition, that is, (specifically) smelting (figuratively conflagration, calamity as a test) – a burning, trial.

‘But rejoice, inasmuch as you are partakers of Christ’s sufferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, you may be glad also with exceeding joy’ this is the 6th and last New Testament prophecy in 1Peter that is unfulfilled. Ten rewards are mentioned in Scripture for Christian suffering: Eternal consolation (2Cor. 1:7; 4:17); making Jesus known (2Cor. 4:11); life to others (2Cor. 4:12); making grace manifest (2Cor. 4:15); greater glory in heaven (2Cor. 4:17); guarantee of judgment (2Thess. 1:5); reign with Christ (2Tim. 2:12); Spirit upon us (1Pet. 4:14); glory to God (1Pet. 4:16); great joy (1Pet. 4:13-14).

‘Partakers of Christ’s sufferings’ Eight facts about Christian suffering: Suffering is not strange or unusual for Christians (4:12; 2Tim. 3:12). We should rejoice when we are partakers of the sufferings of Christ (4:13; Matt. 5:10). The greater the suffering, the greater the joy and the glory (4:13; Rom. 8:17-18). Besides the greater glory to come the Christian has the Holy Spirit upon him now to enable him to endure (4:14; Rom. 8:26-27). Christian sufferings glorify God (4:14; Rom. 8:17-18). It is an honour, not a shame, to suffer as a Christian (4:16). Though sufferings begin with Christians, they end in an eternal weight of damnation to the ungodly (4:17-18). Sufferings should be borne by Christians, in patience as in the will of God, realizing that God is always faithful to His own in their sufferings (4:19; 1Cor. 10:13). Christian suffering consist of: Persecution for righteousness (Matt. 5:10; 13:21; Mark 10:30; John 15:20); reviling and slander (4:4; Matt. 5:11-12; 10:25; Acts 13:45); false accusations (Matt. 10:17-20); rejection by people (Matt. 10:14); scourging for Christ (Matt. 10:17); hatred by the world (Matt. 10:22; John 15:18-21); hatred by relatives (Matt. 10:21-36); martyrdoms (Matt. 10:28; Acts 7:58); temptations (Luke 8:13; Jas. 1:2-16); shame for His name (Acts 5:41); imprisonments (Acts 4:3; 5:18; 12:4); tribulations (Acts 14:22; 2Thess. 1:4); stoning (Acts 14:19; 2Cor. 11:25); beatings (Acts 16:23; 2Cor. 11:24-25); being a spectacle to people (1Cor. 4:9); misunderstanding, necessities, defamation, and despising (1Cor. 4:10-13); trouble, affliction, distresses, tumults, labours, watching, fasting, and evil reports (2Cor. 6:8-10; 11:26-28); reproaches (4:14; Heb. 13:13); trials (1:7; 4:12); satanic opposition (Eph. 4:27; 6:12); groaning and travailing because of the curse (Rom. 8:17-26).