Through Sanctification

1Peter 1:1-2 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied. 

‘Peter’ he was one of the 12 apostles (1Pet. 1:1; Matt. 10:2); called Simon and Cephas (John 1:42); a native fisherman of Bethsaida (Matt. 4:18; John 1:44. Peter was a married man (Matt. 8:14; 1Cor. 9:5). He ministered primarily to Jews (Gal. 2:7) and was an elder among many others (1Pet. 5). Peter went east and wrote an epistle from Babylon. Nothing is given of his death other than what is given in John 21:18-19. The theme of this epistle is to exhort believers to stand true in all kinds of suffering, and to set forth the true grace of God (1Pet. 5:12).

‘An apostle of Jesus Christ’ the Greek word apostolos meaning a delegate, one sent with full power of attorney to act in the place of another, the sender remaining behind to back up the one sent. In the case of Christians it means God sends them to do what He, Himself would do if He went.

There are twenty-four apostles recorded in the Word: Simon Peter and his brother Andrew (Matt. 10:2); James, son of Zebedee and John his brother (Matt. 10:2); Philip and his brother Bartholomew (Matt. 10:3); James, son of Alphaeus and Judas his brother (Luke 6:16) and Matthew, son of Alphaeus, perhaps brother of James and Judas (Mark 2:14; Luke 6:15); Thomas Didymus [twin] (Matt. 10:3; John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2); Simon Zelotes, brother of James and Judas, according to tradition (Luke 6:15); Judas Iscariot (Matt. 10:4); Matthias (Acts 1:26); Barnabas (1Cor. 9:5-6; Acts 13:1-3; 14:4, 14; Gal. 2:9); Andronicus (Rom. 16:7); Junia (Rom. 16:7); Apollos (1Cor. 4:6-9); James, the Lord’s brother (Gal. 1:19; 2:6; Jas. 1:1); Silas (1Thess. 1:1; 2:6); Timothy (1Thess. 1:1; 2:6) Titus (2Cor. 8:23); Epaphroditus (Php. 2:25); Paul (Gal. 1:1; 2:8); Jesus Christ (Heb. 3:1). Lists of the twelve apostles are given in Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13, 26.

‘Strangers’ the Greek word parepidemos. They were Jews of the dispersion (Jas. 1:1). They were the elect or converted Jews (1Pet. 1:2).

‘Pontus’ an ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, originally part of Cappadocia, between the Black and Caspian Seas and south to Armenia (Acts 2:9). ‘Galatia’ a province in Asia Minor west of Cappadocia and south of the Black Sea (Acts 2:9). ‘Cappadocia’ a province east of Galatia and south of the Black Sea (Acts 2:9). ‘Asia’ in some places refers to the whole of Asia Minor, but here it no doubt means the province of Asia Minor with Ephesus as its capital. ‘Bithynia’ an ancient kingdom of Asia Minor south of the Dead Sea and west of Pontus (Acts 16:7).

‘Elect’ the Greek word eklektos meaning to be picked out, chosen. Four elects’ of God are mentioned: Christ (Isa. 42:1; 1Pet. 2:6); all Christians (Rom. 8:33; Col. 3:12; Tit. 1:1; John 15:16; Eph. 1:4; 2:10; 2Thess. 2:13; 2John 1:1, 13); Israel (Isa. 45:4; 65:9, 22; Matt. 24:21-31; Mark 13:22, 27; 1Pet. 1:2); and angels (1Tim. 5:21). Anyone chosen of God at any time, Jew or Gentile, is the elect of God (Rom. 9:11; 11:5, 7, 28; 1Thess. 1:4; 1Pet. 5:13; 2Pet. 1:10). All men are called to become God’s elect or chosen ones and can be if they will choose God (Matt. 11:28-30; 20:16; John 1:12; 3:16-20; 6:37; Eph. 1:4; 2Thess. 2:13; Jas. 2:5; 1Tim. 2:4; 2Pet. 3:9; Rev. 17:14; 22:17).

‘Foreknowledge of God the Father’ the Greek word prognosis meaning to have a perceiving beforehand. Here and in Acts 2:23 refers both to God seeing ahead that He would have to send a Saviour to redeem man from the fall (Rom. 8:29-30). No single individual is chosen, elected, foreknown, or predestined to be saved or lost without his personal choice and responsibility in the matter (John 3:16; 1Tim. 2:4; 2Pet. 3:9; Rev. 22:17). It would be cruel impartiality – an unjust regard for one and an unjust disregard for another – and not divine justice for one to be chosen by God to be saved and another to be damned. God offers grace to all alike. His invitations, promises, provision, and warnings of punishment are general. All people are invited to choose life and are warned of eternal punishment if they do not do so. It is inconsistent with man’s probation for God to elect some to be saved and some to be lost.

‘Sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ’ Three ways to become God’s elect: Through sanctification of the Spirit; through obedience to the gospel and through the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ. All three things take place at once – when we get salvation. This is plainly taught here and in 2Thessalonians 2:13. God has from the beginning chosen us to salvation through the sanctification of the Spirit and to believe in the truth (John 17:17). No man can receive salvation except through these two things. It is folly to claim salvation without sanctification and belief in the truth.

‘Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied’ we are constantly warned to be diligent that we may be found of Jesus Christ in peace, without spot, and blameless, and to beware that we, like the backsliders of 2Peter 2:1-22, who are being led away with the error of the wicked, fall from our own steadfastness and that we might grow in grace, and in the knowledge of Jesus Christ (2Pet. 3:14, 17-18).

The Harvest

John 4:35-39 Say not you, There are yet four months, and then come harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest. And he that reap receive wages, and gather fruit unto life eternal: that both he that sow and he that reap may rejoice together. And herein is that saying true, One sow, and another reap. I sent you to reap that whereon you bestowed no labour: other men laboured, and you are entered into their labours. And many of the Samaritans of that city believed on him for the saying of the woman, which testified, He told me all that ever I did. 

The harvest began after the Passover in April, so the four months before this would be in December. ‘Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest.’ This refers to the Samaritans that were coming out of the city to hear Him. The harvest of souls was already at hand, produced in one day. The lesson is that we are not to sit and wait four months for spiritual harvests; we can have an immediate harvest of the seed sown by living out God’s love to us indeed (by our example) and not through our words (1 Jn. 3:18) in our daily dealings with others.

Christ had sown the seed in the woman and had already received wages of gratification of saving souls. He had sown and gathered fruit unto life eternal the same day, so the sower and the reaper, who here were one and the same person, rejoiced over the harvest of that day (comp. 1Cor. 3:6-9).

Verse 38 simply states that Christ had sent the disciples out to reap benefits of the labours and to carry on the work of the prophets and others before them, including Himself and John the Baptist. They had already baptized many and had preached and healed many (Matt. 10:1-42; Luke 9:1-62; 10:1-42; John 4:2). ‘Believed on him’ – This brings the new birth and eternal life (John 3:15-18; 1Jn. 5:1).

There is no proof that the woman was a prostitute. Her five husbands could have died, or they could have legally divorced her, for divorce then was easy to get. Men divorced for “every cause” (Matt. 19:1-12). It was not always that Deuteronomy 24:1 applied: “and it comes to pass that she find no favour in his eyes because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement.” Rabbis now ignored this, giving divorces for minor causes. Whether the Samaritan allowed divorce or repeated widowhood is not known. The one “whom thou now hast” may have only been under contract to her and they had not yet come together as man and wife (John 4:18).

Conversion

James 5:17-20  Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain: and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months. And he prayed again, and the heaven gave rain, and the earth brought forth her fruit. Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him; Let him know, that he which convert the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins. 

Elijah – Elias’s case is given to show that all men are alike in constitution and to encourage others to pray even for miracles (1Kin. 17:1; 18:1, 41-46).

“Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth…” here seven facts are given about backsliders: It is possible for brethren or Christians to err from the truth and become unconverted (see Peter as an example in Luke 22:32). An erring Christian can be converted again. An erring Christian becomes a sinner again, if he sins (Rom. 6:14-23). An erring Christian incurs the death penalty again when he sins (Ezek. 18:24; Rom. 8:12-13; Gal. 5:19-21). If the erring Christian is saved from his error, his soul will be saved again from death (1Jn. 1:9; 5:16; Rev. 2:5). If he repents and is saved again from death, his sins will be forgiven and hidden. If he does not repent, he will be lost and will have to pay the penalty for sin (2Tim. 2:12; Heb. 6:4-6,10:26-29, 2Pet. 2:20-21).

Conversion means a change of direction, a new walk with God and is explained in Acts 3:19 “Repent you therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord,” thus for us to convert a sinner is to get someone to turn back to God, to change direction, and to walk anew with Him. It is not, however, to save others from their sins, for that is Christ Jesus’ salvation work as our Saviour (Rom. 1:16; Php. 1:28-29; 1Thes. 5:9; Heb. 9:28; 1Pet. 1:10-11).

Confess Your Faults

James 5:16 Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man avail much. 

There is a twofold secret of bodily healing: Confess your faults one to another – admit what you have done wrong; Pray one for another, that you may be healed (Mat. 21:22; Mar. 11:24). The Greek word for faults is paraptoma which means a falling aside when one should have stood upright; a transgression; a moral fall.

A couple of Biblical facts about Sickness and Healing: Both death and sickness originated with sin and are now being propagated by satan (Job 2:6-7; Luke 13:16; John 10:10; Acts 10:38; Rom. 5:12-21). The first prophecy and promise of redemption included healing (Isa. 53:5; Mat. 8:16-17; 1Pet. 2:24). Healing was promised on condition of obedience (Psa. 91:1-16; Isa. 58:1-14; Jas. 5:14-15). God permits (allows ) satan to afflict sinners and even His own people when they go astray, to bring them to repentance (Job 33:12-30; Psa. 38:1-22; 103:3; 1Cor. 5:1-5; 2Cor. 2:6-11). Health, as well as healing, was promised when men met certain conditions (Pro. 3:1-8; 12:18; 18:21; Isa. 58:1-14; 1Pet. 3:10-11; 3Jn. 1:2). Christ came to redeem from both sin and sickness (Isa. 53:1-12; 61:1-2; Mat. 8:17; 1Jn. 3:8). The Holy Spirit was sent into the world to carry on the healing ministry (Acts 2:33; 1Cor. 12:9; Heb. 2:3-4). Healing is provided as part of Christ’s atonement (Isa. 53:4-5; Mat. 13:14-15; John 3:14; 10:10; Rom. 8:11; 1Cor. 11:23-32). Healing is on the same basis as forgiveness of sins – prayer and faith (Mat. 9:1-7; 13:15; 21:22; Acts 28:27; Jas. 1:4-8; 5:14-16; Heb. 11:6). God has provided all necessary means of healing and complete defeat of satanic powers (2Cor. 10:4-5; Eph. 6:10-18; John 14:12-15; Jas. 4:7; 5:14-16; 1Pet. 2:24; 5:7-9, 18). Healing is always the will of God for His people who may: “ask what ye will” (John 15:7); “whatsoever” (Mat. 21:22; John 14:12-15; 15:16); “anything” (John 14:14); “what things soever you desire” (Mar. 11:22-24); and “much more” than earthly parents would or could give their children (Mat. 7:7-11).

Thus, it is clear in Scripture that physical healing is provided for in the Old and New Testaments. The New Testament is based upon better promises than the Old Testament (Heb. 8:6).

The Prayer of Faith

James 5:13-15 Is any among you afflicted? let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing psalms. Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: And the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him. 

If anyone endures hardness or afflictions or suffers trouble: Pray! That’s right, talk to God about it, He is the only one that can change, restore or repair lives and situations.  When you are merry – cheerful and happy – sing Psalms! That’s right, praise God for who He is and what He has done for you! If you are sick, two commands are given to receive healing:

Call the elders – someone that’s been serving God for years with a good report of their lives (see 1 Timothy for requirements) – and confess your sin – acknowledge that you have allowed the enemy to destroy (John 10:10) by not heading to all God commands in His word that keeps us protected under His wings (Ps. 91:4-6) so that the pestilence can’t reach us.

Four things the elders are to do for the sick: Pray over them, anoint the sick with oil, invoke the name of the Lord and pray the prayer of faith.

No doubt pure olive oil is meant, as it was customary among Jews to carry such oil with them in all their journeys, to anoint their bodies and heal their wounds and bruises (Luke 10:34). This anointing was merely symbolic of the healing of God by the Holy Spirit (Mar. 6:13). It doesn’t mean that olive oil was a cure for all kinds of diseases. The oil itself did not heal, for one would not have to pray and invoke the name of Jesus Christ merely to anoint with oil, nor would it have to be done by the elders.

The prayer of faith shall save the sick – this is what heals the sick in such cases. When the prayer of faith is prayed and the name of Jesus Christ invoked, the Lord shall rise up the sick and forgive him if he has sinned. This power to heal is promised to every believer (Mat. 17:20; 21:22; John14:12-15; 15:7, 16; 16:23-26). The Lord shall raise him up refers to true divine healing. Healing and forgiveness go hand in hand (Mat. 9:5; 13:15; Acts 3:16).

Swear Not

James 5:12 But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest you fall into condemnation. 

Jews and Arabs were notorious for swearing or taking oaths by heaven, earth, Jerusalem, the temple, the altar, and the different members of the body. Even simple affirmatives were always accompanied with an oath. It was this wicked practice that caused this command to see the light. The Greek word for condemnation here is hupokrisis which means hypocrisy. The idea is that those who were in the habit of making oaths also believed that they could make them with the mouth while the heart cancelled them. Oaths were made with mental reservations to annul them, regardless of how solemn they were. This was all done in hypocrisy and fostered searing of the conscience as to what was said. One soon became a confirmed hypocrite in such matters.

Jesus commanded us in Matthew 5:34-37 “Not to swear at all; neither by heaven; for it is God’s throne: Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swears by thy head, because thou cannot make one hair white or black. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these come of evil.” Don’t make any promises whatsoever, but stick to what you said you will do or not do, thus let your Yes be yes and your No be no. Our word forms part of our testimony and the enemy will do whatever necessary to discount our trustworthiness in the hope to destroy our living sacrifice (1 Pet. 2:21-23).

Be Patient

James 5:7-11 Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman wait for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain. Be you also patient; stablish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord draw nigh. Grudge not one against another, brethren, lest you be condemned: behold, the judge stand before the door. Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord, for an example of suffering affliction, and of patience. Behold, we count them happy which endure. You have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. 

We are warned to have the right attitude – patience instead of moaning and groaning until the coming of the Lord, which refers to the rapture (not the second coming) when the Lord will come in the air to receive the saints to Himself (John 14:1-3; Luke 21:34-36; 1Cor.15:23, 51-58). The early and latter rains in Palestine, the early rain at seedtime and the latter rain at harvest time, are used here to picture the fruit of the harvest of souls. The early spiritual rain fell at the founding of the body of Christ (Acts 2:1-16) and the latter rain will be poured out at the end of this age when the complete harvest of this dispensation will be gathered (Acts 2:16-21; cp. Hos. 6:3; Zech. 10:1).

Many examples in the word are given to us for those who suffered in patience and of whom the world was not worthy of (Heb. 11:32-40). Job is given as an example as one who suffered because of that which he feared that did came over him as seen in Job 1:5 and his acknowledgement of this sin where he said: “For the thing which I greatly feared is come upon me, and that which I was afraid of is come unto me” (Job 3:25). We are reminded in 2 Timothy 1:7 that God didn’t give us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.

Riches

James 5:1-6  Go to now, you rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. You have heaped treasure together for the last days. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, cries: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth. You have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; you have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter.  You have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you. 

These verses contain the first and last prophecy in James regarding six predictions concerning evil rich men that awaits them because they have condemned and killed the just.

Miseries will come upon them, their riches will become corrupted and their garments moth-eaten, their gold and silver to canker that eat their flesh and the rust or poison of their riches will witness or testify of their many sins. These riches that are corrupted instead of cankered as gold and silver, refers to crops, flocks, stores of grain, wine, oil, and many changes of clothing in the wardrobes.

Lord of Sabaoth is a term often used in the Old Testament of God who is Lord of hosts, or Lord of armies, who has infinite power to rule the nations and punish the wicked (1Sam. 1:3, 11; 4:4; 15:2).

Living in pleasure on earth – the Greek word truphao which means to live softly or delicately; fare sumptuously; live in luxury; to be effeminate; to be licentious; to revel – and been wanton is the Greek word spatalao that refers to living riotously and in pleasure (1Tim. 5:6; 1 Pet. 4:3); and nourishing of the hearts as in the day of slaughter refers to feasting and surfeiting as men do at the times of their religious feasts.

God’s Will

James 4:13-17 Go to now, you that say, today or tomorrow we will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain: Whereas you know not what shall be on the morrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapour, that appear for a little time, and then vanish away. For that you ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this, or that. But now you rejoice in your boastings: all such rejoicing is evil. Therefore to him that know to do good, and do it not, to him it is sin. 

Boastings here consist of bragging on buying and selling from city to city and what one will do here and there. One should always say, “If the Lord will, we shall live to do this, or that”. This would demonstrate a personal faith in God and His providence instead of one’s own abilities. All such boasting is of evil intent. We cannot travel, shop, work or live life from our own understanding and ideas, we have to trust in God and acknowledge Him in all our ways, then He can direct our paths (Pro. 3:5-6).

God’s will is always to make us perfect in every good work to do His will, working in you that which is well-pleasing in His sight, through the Lord Jesus Christ (Heb. 13:21).

For what is your life? It is a vapour…This is practically what was said of the rich man in James 1:10-11, so little worth to one’s life whom only focuses on the riches and ‘success’ of this world. The last verse warns that if we know what is good – to do right according to God’s standards – and we don’t, we are sinning. The Greek word for sin is hamartia which means to miss the mark.

Draw Near to God

James 4:8-12 Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double minded. Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to heaviness. Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he shall lift you up. Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that speak evil of his brother, and judge his brother, speak evil of the law, and judge the law: but if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge. There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy: who are you that judge another? 

Cleansing the hands was a symbol of innocence and purity (Mat. 27:24), but here it means to separate yourself from the world and consecrate your life to God, renouncing all sin.

For those who do not dwell in the secret place of the most High, that does not abide under the shadow of the Almighty (Psa. 91:1), in reconciling with Him, you have to draw near to God again so that He can come near to you. But certain conditions are commanded to restore to your previous state. You must have no double-mindedness which refers to doubting God (Jas. 1:6-8) and you must be afflicted – mourn and weep – which shows of a true repentance that will always bring the mercy of God if done in time–that is now (1Jn. 1:7; Heb. 9:27).

Ten types of sin and pleasure are mentioned in James 4:1-9: Wars and fighting; lusts of sin (Eph. 2:1-3); murders and killings; desires – covetousness; adulteries and other sexual sins; friendships with worldly men; envies and jealousies; pride and haughtiness; laughter prompted by sin; joy founded on sin. True followers of Christ would not be guilty of those as stated repeatedly in 1 John 3.

To speak against; backbite; rail at; slander (1Pet. 2:12; 3:16)refers to slandering among the different factions of Jews and the Jews against their brethren who had accepted Christ and God is the one lawgiver and judge who is able to save or destroy. Man has no right to usurp this authority when we judge those who choose to stay in sin.