Romans 8:15-17 For you have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
‘Spirit of bondage again to fear’ Spirit and nature of satan (Eph. 2:2; John 8:44; 1Jn. 3:8; Heb. 2:14-15). You have not received a spirit of slavery to relapse again into fear and terror, but you have received the Spirit of freedom and sonship to break every bondage.
‘The Spirit of adoption’ Spirit and nature of God (5:5; 8:2, 9, 11, 15-16; Gal. 4:4-6). ‘Adoption’ – Sonship (8:15, 23; 9:4; Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5). Adopted sons share the same rights and privileges as one born in the family. Because of sonship, we receive the fullest evidence of it by the Spirit (8:14-16; Gal. 4:6-7).
‘Abba, Father’ [Aramaic for Father] only used by Jews where both parents of a real son were Jews, or of a proselyte of the covenant. Not used when the mother was a slave (Gal. 4:24). This indicates the true relationship of Jesus to God.
‘Itself’ – Himself, for He is a person. It is of the greatest importance that we believe in the divinity of the Holy Spirit, and also His personality. It is only when we learn these truths that we can give Him the honour, worship, adoration, and personal respect that we give to God. We must learn that the Holy Spirit is not a mere power that we need to get hold of and use, but we must learn that He is a person who is infinitely wise, holy, just, and gracious, and who seeks to get hold of us and use us. We must become acquainted with Him as a person and not merely as an influence or power derived from a person. The following points prove that He is a real person: Personal names are given to Him; personal pronouns are used of Him (John 14:16-26; 15:26; 16:7-15); personal attributes are ascribed to Him; personal works are ascribed to Him; personal references are made concerning Him; personal treatment is ascribed to Him. He can be resisted (Acts 7:51); tempted (Acts 5:9); grieved (Eph. 4:30); lied to (Acts 5:3-4); blasphemed (Matt. 12:31-32); insulted (Matt. 12:31-32; Heb. 6:4-6; 10:26-29); quenched (1Thess. 5:19); vexed (Ps. 78:40; Isa. 63:10); quieted (Zech 6:8); fellowshipped (Php. 2:1); and otherwise mistreated or obeyed like any other person. In the Holy Spirit’s relationship to men He is spoken of as searching hearts, regenerating, sanctifying, helping, convicting, teaching, quickening, guiding, witnessing, interceding, revealing, working, hearing, speaking, helping, communing, appointing, commanding, counselling, comforting, inspiring, assuring, calling, hearing, and in many ways acting as a real person.
‘Our spirit’ – this is our mind or understanding (1Cor. 2:11).
‘And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ …’ this is the 1st New Testament prophecy in Romans (8:17-250). Not only children, but also heirs (8:17; Eph. 3:6; Heb. 11:9; 1Pet. 3:7).
‘If so be that we suffer with him’ this refers to our sufferings for His sake, as all are called to endure (8:17-18; Col. 1:24; 2Tim. 2:12; 3:12).
‘Glorified together’ all will be glorified together with Christ (Col. 3:4; 1Thess. 4:13-17; 1Cor. 15:23, 51-58).