Husbands

Ephesians 5:25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it 

‘Husbands, love your wives…’ Eight commands are given here for husbands: To be the head of the wife (5:23). To love their wives as Christ loved His body (5:25). To love their wives as their own bodies (5:28, 33). To nourish [Greek: ektrepho] bring up, care for, protect (5:29; 6:4; Rev. 12:6). To cherish [Greek: thalpo] to foster, warm in one’s bosom (5:29; 1Thess. 2:7). To be joined as one flesh (5:30-31). To leave their parents for their wives (5:31). To cleave to their wives (5:31; Matt. 19:5).

Husbands are not to rule their wives, but love, nourish and protect them as the head of the body and must be just as faithful to their wives as they want them to be to them; give them no excuse for sin. They must give their wives honour and use their superior strength in protecting her and as being heirs together of life (1Pet. 3:7).

‘The church, and gave himself for it’ – Sixteen facts: Christ and His body: Christ is head of His body (5:23). Christ is Saviour of us (5:23). Christians must be subject to Christ in all things (5:24). Christ gave Himself for us (5:25). Christ sanctifies us with the washing of the Word (5:26). Christ cleanses us with the washing by the Word (5:26). Christ will receive us to Himself (5:27; John 14:1-3; 1Thess. 4:16; 1Cor. 15:23, 51-58; Col. 3:4). Christ is making us glorious (5:27; 1Cor. 6:11; 2Cor. 3:18). Christ is making us spotless (5:27). Christ is making us perfect (5:27). Christ is making us holy (5:27). Christ is making us faultless (5:27). Christ nourishes us, cares for us, brings us up, and protects us (5:29). Christ cherishes us, fosters, and warms us in His bosom (5:29). We are part of Christ (5:30-32; 1Cor. 12:12-13, 27). We are one with Christ (5:30-32; 1Cor. 6:17; Rom. 12:4-5).

Christ is the Head, Saviour, Sanctifier, Purifier, Glorifier, Builder, Nourisher, Cherisher, Unifier, Protector, and the Receiver of all reborn Christians who are prepared to follow His Word and example as stated in 1Peter 2:21-23 (5:23-33). Water is used in a figurative sense of salvation (John 4:14; Isa. 12:3), of the Spirit baptism (John 7:37-39), and cleansing by the Word of God (5:26; John 15:3;). Since men are cleansed and born again by the Word (Jas. 1:18; 1Pet. 1:23), it is clear that being born of water means being born again by the Word of God.

Giving Thanks Always

Ephesians 5:18-21 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God

‘Drunk’ [Greek: methusko] This again refers to the orgies of Bacchus when men and women would get drunk entering into all kinds of immoral acts. ‘Excess’ [Greek: asotia] debauchery of every kind.

‘Filled with the Spirit’ – This is the privilege of every Christian. It is true that every born-again person receives the Spirit of sonship and has the Holy Spirit in a measure (Rom. 8:9, 14-16), but this is not the kind of filling one may yet receive if he will accept the truth and seek God for the fullness of the Spirit (Matt. 3:11; Luke 11:13; 24:49; John 1:31-34; 7:37-39; 14:12; Acts 1:4-8; 2:38-39; 5:32). Different measures of the Spirit are noted as follows in Scripture: Mosaic portion (Num. 11:17, 25). The mosaic portion is divided into 71 portions (Num. 11:16-17, 25-29). Elijah portion (2Kin. 2:9). Double portion (2Kin. 2:9-10). Elijah portion on John the Baptist (Luke 1:15-17). Earnest of the Spirit (2Cor. 1:22; 5:5; 1Jn. 4:13; Php. 1:19). The Spirit “without measure” (John 3:34; Isa. 11:2; 42:1; 61:1; Luke 4:16-21; Acts 10:38); Spirit baptism or baptismal measure (Matt. 3:11; 20:22-23; Luke 3:16; John 1:31-34; Acts 1:4-8; 2:1-21; 8:15-24; 10:44-48; 11:14-18; 15:7-11; 19:1-7; Gal. 3:14); the fulness of God (Eph. 3:19; Rom. 15:29); the rivers of living water (John 7:37-39); and the full anointing of the Spirit and enduement of power from on high (Luke 24:49; John 14:12-15).

‘In psalms and hymns and spiritual songs.’ The difference between the psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs is not fully clear. The psalms no doubt refer to the book of Psalms. Hymns and spiritual songs could include any psalm in the book of Psalms and also others that were commonly known among the people of that day (Matt. 26:30; Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16; Ex. 15:1, 2; Num. 21:17; Deut. 13:1-18; Jdg. 5:12; Son. 1:1; Isa. 5:1; 26:1; 42:10). The reference might also be to spontaneous singing in the Spirit, as in 1Corinthians 14:15-16.

‘Songs’ [Greek: ode] is a song of thanksgiving.

‘Making melody’ [Greek: psallo] to play a stringed instrument with the fingers; to strike a chord; sing to the music of a harp (Rom. 15:9; 1Cor. 14:15; Eph. 5:19; Jas. 5:13).

‘Giving thanks always for all things unto God’ – Because of continued blessings from God.

‘In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.’ Through Him alone we can approach God (Mark 16:17; John 14:12-15; 16:23-26; Col. 3:17; 1Tim. 2:4; Heb. 10:19). ‘Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.’ Let no man be stubborn in his opinion to disturb the peace of other believers

Awake Thou That Sleep

Ephesians 5:13-17 But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever do make manifest is light. Wherefore he said, Awake thou that sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light. See then that you walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. Wherefore be you not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. 

‘All things that are reproved are made manifest by the light.’ All reprovable actions are made manifest by light.

‘Awake thou that sleep, and arise from the dead.’ A paraphrase of Isaiah 60:1-2. It is a command given to awake from sleep as in being dead or asleep spiritually until you are one in Christ where you will be awake and alive.

‘Circumspectly’ [Greek: akribos] circumspectly (5:15); perfectly (Acts 18:26; 23:15, 23:20; 1Thess. 5:2); perfect (Luke 1:3; Acts 24:22); and diligently (Matt. 2:8; Acts 18:25). It means to walk about watching every hand to avoid danger and enemies – live the gospel by watching your conduct.

‘Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.’ Buying up those moments which others throw away. Improve every moment to make up for those lost in sin.

‘Unwise’ [Greek: aphron] senseless, crazed (2Cor. 11:16). Do not become madmen. Here is an allusion to the wild orgies of Bacchus, in which men acted like they were mad; running and tossing their heads and appearing in every sense completely frantic. Be sober, chaste.

All Goodness, Righteousness and Truth

Ephesians 5:8-10 For you were sometimes darkness, but now are you light in the Lord: walk as children of light: (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord. 

‘(For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth)’ The nine-fold fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22-23): Love. [Greek: agape] divine love. A strong, ardent, tender, compassionate, devotion to the well-being of someone (1Cor. 13:4-8). Joy. [Greek: chara] the emotional excitement, gladness, delight over blessings received or expected for oneself and others. Peace. [Greek: eirene] the state of quietness, rest, repose, harmony, order, and security during turmoil, strife, and temptations. Longsuffering. [Greek: makrothumia] patient endurance; to bear long with the frailties, offences, injuries, and provocations of others, without murmuring, repining, or resentment (1Cor. 13:4-7; 2Cor. 6:4-6; Eph. 4:1-2; Col. 1:11; 3:12-13; 1Tim. 1:16; 2Tim. 3:10; 4:2). Gentleness. [Greek: chrestotes] a disposition to be gentle, soft-spoken, kind, even-tempered, cultured, and refined in character and conduct (2Tim. 2:24-26; Tit. 3:1-2; Jas. 3:17). Goodness. [Greek: agathosune] the state of being good, kind, virtuous, benevolent, generous, and God-like in life and conduct (Ex. 33:19; 34:6; Ps. 23:6; 31:19; 33:5; 107:9; Rom. 2:4; Eph. 5:9; Matt. 5:44-48; Luke 6:27-32). Faith. [Greek: pistis] the living, divinely implanted, acquired, and created principle of inward and wholehearted confidence, assurance, trust, and reliance in God and all that He says. Meekness. [Greek: praotes] the disposition to be gentle, kind, indulgent, even balanced in tempers and passions, and patient in suffering injuries without feeling a spirit of revenge. Temperance. [Greek: engkrateia] self-control; a moderation in the indulgence of the appetites and passions (Pro. 23:1-3; 25:16; Dan. 1:8-16; Rom. 13:14; 2Cor. 9:1-15 :25-27; Php. 4:5; 1Thess. 5:6-8; Tit. 2:2-3, 11-12; 2Pet. 1:5-10).

The Wrath of God

Ephesians 5:5-7 For this you know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God. Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things come the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. Be not you therefore partakers with them. 

‘No whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.’ This is the 8th New Testament prophecy in Ephesians (5:5-6) and it is unfulfilled. Five Classes that will not inherit God’s Kingdom are noted here: [1] Whoremongers. [Greek: pornos] a male prostitute; a sexually immoral man. Translated “fornicator” (1Cor. 5:9-11; 6:9; Heb. 12:16) and “whoremonger” (5:5; 1Tim. 1:10; Heb. 13:4; Rev. 21:8; 22:15). [2] Unclean persons. [Greek: akathartos] homosexual, pervert (Luke 4:33; Gal 5:19). [3] Covetous men (Matt. 6:19-21; Luke 12:15; Rom. 13:9; Heb. 13:5; 1Jn. 2:15-17). [4] Deceivers (5:6; 2Tim. 3:13; Tit. 1:10; 3:3; Rev. 12:9; 20:3, 20:8). [5] Children of disobedience (5:6; 2:2; Col. 3:6). According to Athenaeus, the Ephesians were addicted to luxury, effeminacy, and sexual vice.

‘Be not you therefore partakers with them.’ Fifteen commands are given to Christians here: Be not partners with them (5:5-7). Walk as children of light (5:8-9). Prove what is acceptable to God (5:10). Have no fellowship with the works of darkness (5:11-13). Reprove the works of darkness (5:11-13). Awake from sleep and death (5:14). Walk circumspectly (5:15). Walk as wise men (5:15, 17). Redeem the time (5:16). Understand the will of God (5:17). Don’t drink wine (5:18). Be filled with the Spirit (5:18). Edify yourselves with praise and singing to honour God (5:19). Give thanks to God in Jesus’ name (5:20). Submit yourselves to each other (5:21).

Followers of God

Ephesians 5:1-4 Be you therefore followers of God, as dear children; And walk in love, as Christ also had loved us, and had given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour. But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as become saints; Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks. 

‘Followers’ [Greek: mimetes] imitators; mimic the gait, speech, accent, and manner of life of another. In 1Corinthians 4:16, Paul advises the Christians to follow or imitate him as he imitated Christ (1Cor. 11:1; 1Thess. 1:6; 2:14; Heb. 6:12; 1Pet. 3:13). Here, it means to imitate God as children do their parents; imitate His acts, words, nature, ways, graces, and Spirit.

‘Given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God.’ The twofold sacrifice of Christ: As an offering; the same as in Leviticus 2:1 to show gratitude for temporal blessings received. As a sacrifice for sin (Matt. 26:28; 1Pet. 2:24); the same as in Leviticus 1:9; 3:16.

‘Sweetsmelling savour’ – An aroma of a sweet smell to God. That is, God was well pleased with the offering and sacrifice of Christ because it made possible the redemption of His fallen creation (Rom. 8:18-24).

‘But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as become saints.’ Six forbidden things to saints (5:5-6): [1] Fornication (Matt. 5:32; 19:9; 1Cor. 7:2; 10:8; 1Thess. 4:3; Rev. 9:21); [2] Uncleanness (Rom. 1:21-32; 6:19; 2Cor. 12:21; Gal. 5:19); [3] Covetousness (Matt. 6:19-21; Luke 12:15; Rom. 13:9; Heb. 13:5; 1Jn. 2:15-17); [4] Filthiness [Greek: aischrotes] meaning ugliness, baseness, vileness, shame, infamy; [5] Foolish talking [Greek: morologia] speaking foolishly; idle, stupid talk; [6] Jesting [Greek: eutrapelia] ribaldry; indecency sugar-coated-in mirth to make it more corrupting; coarse jesting; obscene and offensive conversation.

For Christ’s Sake

Ephesians 4:31-32 Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice: And be you kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake had forgiven you. 

‘Bitterness’ [Greek: pikria] bitterness, malice, venom (Acts 8:23; Rom. 3:14; Heb.12:15).

‘Wrath’ [Greek: thumos] any vehement passion, anger, wrath, hatred (Gal. 5:20).

‘Anger’ [Greek: orge] anger (4:31; Mark 3:5; Col. 3:8); indignation (Rev. 14:10); vengeance (Rom. 3:5); and wrath (2:3; 5:6; Matt. 3:7; Luke 3:7; 21:23; John 3:36; Rom. 1:18; 2:5, 8; 4:15; 5:9; 11:22; 12:19; 13:4-5; Col. 3:6; 1Thess. 1:10; 2:16; 5:9; 1Tim. 2:8; Heb. 3:11; 4:3; Jas. 1:19-20; Rev. 6:16-17; 11:18; 16:19; 19:15).

‘Clamour’ [Greek: krauge] uproar (4:31; Matt. 25:5; Acts 23:9; Heb. 5:7; Rev. 14:18; 21:4).

‘Evil speaking’ [Greek: blasphemia from blasphemos] to: Speak evil of (4:31; Jude 1:8); rail (1Tim. 6:4; 2Pet. 2:11); revile (Matt. 27:39); defame (1Cor. 4:13); slander (Rom. 3:8); insult by blasphemy (Matt. 12:31).

‘Malice’ [Greek: kakia] malice (4:31; 1Cor. 5:8; 14:20; Col. 3:8; Tit. 3:3; 1Pet. 2:1); evil (Matt. 6:34); naughtiness (Jas. 1:21); maliciousness (Rom. 1:29; 1Pet. 2:1); and wickedness (Acts 8:22).

‘Kind’ [Greek: chrestos] kind (4:32; Luke 6:35); good (1Cor. 15:33; Rom. 2:4); gracious (1Pet. 2:3); and easy (Matt. 11:30).

‘Tenderhearted’ [Greek: eusplangchnos] tenderly compassionate (1Pet. 3:8).

‘Forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.’ Matthew 6:14-15 summarizes the law of forgiveness: “For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if you forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses” (Matt. 18:21-35; Col. 3:13).

Putting Away

Ephesians 4:25-30 Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another. Be you angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath: Neither give place to the devil. Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needed. Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the hearers. And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption. 

‘Putting away’ [Greek: apotithemi] the aorist participle has the sense of “having put away.” We have to be done with the noted sins to be Christians as commanded in Romans 6, 1Peter 2:21-23 and 1 John 3.

‘Lying’ [Greek: to pseudos] the lie. It is the lie that is put away. This has to do with putting away satan who is the father of the lie (John 8:44; 2Thess. 2:11). It was a common thing for the heathen teachers to declare that a lie is better than the truth when it is profitable and less hurtful. Having been brought up in such a loose system of morality, these converts needed this admonition. Part of this verse is quoted from Zechariah 8:16.

‘Angry’ [Greek: orgizo] to make angry, provoke to anger, irritate (4:26; Matt. 5:22; 18:34; 22:7; Luke 14:21; 15:28; Rev. 11:18; 12:17). The reference is to being provoked to sin by satan, but one must not yield to such provoking or give place to the devil (4:26-27). The words “anger” and “angry” are used 278 times in the Bible, but only 12 times in the New Testament The faculty to be angry is God-created and perfectly sinless in itself. The misuse of it and all other faculties is what God condemns. God, Himself has been angry many times because of sin (Num. 11:1, 10, 33; 12:9; 14:11; Ps. 7:11). One must have a cause if he is to be angry (Matt. 5:22; Rom. 1:18; Jas. 1:19). God never de-humanizes or uncreates one in sanctification. Anger is allowed by the gospel (Mark 3:5), but not sin because of it.

‘Corrupt’ [Greek: sapros] useless, putrid, obscene (Matt. 7:17-18; 12:33; 13:48; Luke 6:43).

‘Grieve not the holy Spirit of God.’ Grieve not by doing any of these forbidden things of Ephesians 4:17-5:18.

‘Sealed unto the day of redemption’ – Sealed: For security (Matt. 27:66; Rev. 20:3). To hide, as the contents of a letter (Rev. 10:4; 22:10; cp. Deut. 32:34). To confirm or approve by testimony (John 3:33; 6:27; Rom. 15:28). To confirm ownership (1:13; 4:30; 2Cor. 1:22; Rev. 7:3-8). The Holy Spirit of adoption is given to everyone who repents (1:13; 4:30; Rom. 8:9, 14-16; 2Cor. 1:22) and he who has this Spirit has God’s seal that he belongs to the heavenly family.

Be Renewed

Ephesians 4:23-24 And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; And that you put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. 

‘Renewed’ [Greek: ananeoo] meaning the whole course of life now flows in a different direction (2Cor. 5:17-18). Be renewed in the attitude of your mind by renouncing its vanity (4:17), its darkness and blindness (4:18) and learning of Christ (4:20-21).

From 2Corinthians 5:17-21 we were given ten personal Gospel blessings: It brings one into Christ (2Cor. 5:17). One is a new creature (2Cor. 5:17). Old things are passed away (2Cor. 5:17). The Greek word for “old” is archaios, meaning ancient, original, old. Such things are no more in one. All things are new (2Cor. 5:17). The life is just the opposite of the old life. All things are of God (2Cor. 5:18). The true Christian does not permit anything in his life which is ungodly and unChristlike (Rom. 6:14-23; 8:1-13; Gal. 5:16-26). One is reconciled to God (2Cor. 5:18; Rom. 5:10; Eph. 2:14-18; Col. 1:20-21). He has part in the ministry of reconciliation (2Cor. 5:18-20; 1:18-24). He has been trusted with the Word of reconciliation (2Cor. 5:19; Mark 16:15-20). He is an ambassador of God in Christ’s stead (2Cor. 5:20; Prov. 13:17). He is the righteousness of God in Christ (2Cor. 5:21; Rom. 3:21-31; 8:4).

‘Put on’ [Greek: enduo] to be clothed with, put on (Matt. 27:31; Mark 15:20; Luke 15:22); be clothed with (Mark 15:17; Rev. 1:13); be clothed in (Rev. 15:6; 19:14), and arrayed in (Acts 12:21). Anyone clothed with this power will be able to confirm what he lives, and this is the only normal New Testament program (John 14:12; Mark 16:16-20). The new nature must be put on and it must manifest righteousness and true holiness (4:23-24). Salvation is a hope and not actually an unforfeitable possession until the next life (1Thess. 5:8; Rom. 8:20-25; 2Thess. 2:16; 1Pet. 1:5, 9, 13). Eternal life is also a hope now, even though we possess it (Tit. 1:2; 3:7; Heb. 3:6; 6:11, 6:11, 18-19; 1Pet. 1:3, 13). It will not actually be an unforfeitable and an eternal possession until the next life and at the end of a life of sowing to the Spirit (Matt. 7:13-14; 18:8-9; 19:28-29; Mark 10:29-30; Luke 18:29-30; Rom. 2:7; 6:21-23; Gal. 6:7-8; 1Tim. 1:16; 4:8; 6:12, 19; 1Pet. 1:5, 9, 13; 3:7; 1Jn. 2:25; Jude 1:20-24; Dan. 12:2; John 5:28-29).

‘The new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.’ This is the Spirit and nature of God in renewed man (4:23-24; 2Pet. 1:4; Rom. 8:9, 14-16).

‘Holiness’ [Greek: hosiotes] A normal Christian life consists of holiness (4:24; 1Thess. 4:7; Gal. 5:19-24; Heb. 12:14).

The Truth is In Jesus

Ephesians 4:20-22 But you have not so learned Christ; If so be that you have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus: That you put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts 

‘But you have not so learned Christ.’ Life of saints must contain the following: Learn Christ – get to know Him (4:20; Matt. 11:28-30). Hear and be taught by Christ (4:21). Put off the old man (4:22; 2Cor. 5:17). Be renewed in mind attitude (4:23). Put on the new man (4:24; 2Cor. 5:17). Put away lying and speak truth (4:25). Feel anger without acting on it by sinning (4:26). Give no place to the devil (4:27). Quit stealing (4:28). Work for a living (4:28). Give to the needy (4:28). Use the tongue right (4:29). Grieve not the Holy Spirit (4:30). Put away bitterness, wrath, anger, clamour, evil speaking, and malice (4:31). Be kind, tender-hearted, and forgiving as Christ (4:32). Be followers of God (5:1). Walk in love, as Christ did (5:2). Let not fornication, homosexuality, covetousness, filthiness, foolish talking, and sexual jesting be once named among you as becomes saints (5:3-4; cp. Mark 7:19-21; Rom. 1:18-32; 1Cor. 6:9-11; Gal. 5:19-21; Col. 3:5-10).

‘The old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts.’ The “old man” is the spirit and nature of the devil (2Cor. 5:17). Therefore, because we do not know any man after the flesh, not even Christ, it is vain for any man to profess a relationship with Christ according to the flesh, while he is unchanged in heart and life and dead in trespasses and sins. Two old things pass away:

[1] The spirit, nature, and power of sin the old man, which is nothing more nor less than the spirit, nature, and power of the devil working in men of disobedience (2:2; John 8:44; 2Cor. 4:4; 1Jn. 3:8; 5:18). This is what the Bible calls: The old man (4:22; Rom. 6:6; Col. 3:9); Sin (John 1:29; 8:34; Rom. 6:4-8:2); The body of sin (Rom. 6:6); The power of satan (Acts 26:18); The body of this death (Rom. 7:24); The lusts of the flesh (2:3); The lust of the eyes (1Jn. 2:15-17); The pride of life (1Jn. 2:15-17); The works of the flesh (Gal. 5:19); The world (1Jn. 2:15-17; Jas. 4:4); Vile affections (Rom. 1:26, 29); The lusts of the mind (2:3); The lusts of sin (Rom. 6:11-12); The motions of sins (Rom. 7:5); The law of sin and death (Rom.  7:7-8:2); The carnal mind (Rom. 8:1-13); The god of this world (2Cor. 4:4); Spiritual wickedness in high places … rulers of darkness (6:12); The lusts of your father (John 8:44); Sin that dwelleth in me (Rom. 7:17); The course of this world (2:2); The body of the sins of the flesh (Col. 2:11; Gal. 5:24; Rom. 8:1-39).

[2] Outward sin or transgression of the law (1Jn. 3:4; Rom. 4:15; Jas. 1:13-15). The outward acts are listed in Mark 7:19-21; Romans 1:18-32; 2Corinthians 6:9-11; Galatians 5:19-21; Colossians 3:5-10.

Both outward and inward sin must pass away or one cannot claim to be in Christ. The theory that only outward transgressions are forgiven and one is still under the control of the old man (the devil) is one of the most erroneous doctrines in Christendom (4:24; 2Cor. 5:17-18; 1Jn. 5:18; Rom. 6:6-23; 8:1-13).