John 10:6-21 This parable spoke Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spoke unto them. Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them. I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture. The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly. I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling, and careth not for the sheep. I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine. As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd. Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father. There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings. And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him? Others said, These are not the words of him that hath a devil. Can a devil open the eyes of the blind?
The parable here used by Jesus was the Greek word paroimia which means wayside saying; proverb; a saying deviating from the usual manner of speaking. It is translated “proverb” in John 16:25, 29; 2Pet. 2:22 and “parable” here. The record the truths here taught are: Jesus is the door [way to the Truth] of the sheep (vv. 7, 9); Jesus is the way to salvation (vv. 9; 3:15-20, 36; 5:24; 14:6); anyone can go in and out and be perfectly free (v. 9; 8:32); all previously announced messiahs were false (v8); the devil’s work is to steal (Luke 8:12), kill (Heb. 2:14), and destroy (John 10:10; Mark 9:22; Luke 13:16; Acts 10:38; Job. 2:7); Jesus came that men might have abundant life (John 10:10; Matt. 4:23; 8:17; Luke 4:18; Acts 10:38; 1Pet. 2:24; Heb. 2:14; Isa. 53:1-12); He is the good shepherd: the chief shepherd, and great shepherd (vv. 11, 14; 1Pet. 5:4; Heb. 13:20); Jesus redeemed the sheep by dying in their place (vv. 11, 15, 17-18; Isa. 53:1-12; 1Pet. 2:24); hireling shepherds flee from danger and leave the sheep to death, destruction, and division (vv. 10:12-13; Acts 20:28-31; Rom. 16:17; 2Cor. 11:14-15; 1Tim. 4:1-16; 2Tim. 4:1-22); Jesus knows His sheep and they know Him (vv. 14, 27; 17:1-3); He knows the Father and the Father knows Him (v. 15; 7:29; 8:55); Jesus has other sheep (Gentiles = other nations) which are not of this (Jewish) fold. They will hear His voice and come into the fold, having one shepherd (v. 16; Rom. 10:12; 1Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:28; Eph. 1:10; 2:11-22; 3:6-15); The Father loves Him because He sacrificed His life for the sheep (v. 17; 1Pet. 2:24; Col. 2:20); No man can kill Jesus for He volunteered to die for men (v. 18; 19:11; Isa. 53:7); He was resurrected (vv. 17-18; 1Cor. 15:1-58; Mat_28:1-20); all who hear His voice [His Word] and do not obey are not His sheep; all who hear His voice and obey are His sheep. He knows His sheep, and they follow and obey Him daily. To all who obey and follow Him He gives eternal life. They shall never perish, nor be plucked from His hand (vv. 25-29; Matt. 19:27-30; Mark 10:28-31; Luke 9:23; 18:28-30; Gal. 6:7-8; Rom. 6:16-23; 8:12-13).