John 20:1-10 The first day of the week came Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and saw the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Then she ran, and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and said unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him. Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. Then came Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and saw the linen clothes lie, And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
‘First day of the week’ literally, the first day of the sabbaths, referring to the seven sabbaths to Pentecost (Lev. 23:15-17). ‘Sabbath’ the weekly sabbath, not the special sabbath of the feast which was two days before (Lev. 23:7). It is certain that it took place on the first day of the week after the regular weekly sabbath (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2, 16:9; Luke 24:1; John 20:1, 19) and three days and three nights after the crucifixion (Matt. 12:40).
In Matthew 28:2 we read there was a great earthquake that took place sometime between sunset Saturday and dawn Sunday. The resurrection had already happened by the time the women [Mary Magdalene and the other Mary] arrived at the tomb before daylight (Mark 16:4; Luke 24:2). It is the second earthquake one in three days (Matt. 27:51).
We read in Matthew and Mark that an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it (Matt. 28:5; Mark 16:5).
‘Early, when it was yet dark’ before it became light on Sunday morning, which day began at sunset Saturday and ended sunset Sunday. A Jewish day runs from 6 pm to 6 pm the following day. Mary is mentioned in particular here because she was the one who left the women to get Peter and John.
‘Disciple, whom Jesus loved’ this is John himself who always referred to himself in the third person (13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 21:20-25). He was not loved more than others by Christ, but he accepted His love and chose to call himself accordingly. God does not have respect for persons, with regards to their looks, races, classes and sexes (Acts 10:34; Rom. 2:11; Gal. 3:28; Jas. 2:1-4).
‘They have laid him’ Mary thought Joseph and Nicodemus had removed the body of Jesus.
‘Did outrun Peter’ no proof that John was younger than Peter. He could have simply been faster at running.
‘Wrapped together in a place by itself’ these things were lying in place as they were when they were wrapped about Him. He had merely passed out of them without disturbing them, not needing as Lazarus to be loosed (11:44). It was proof that a resurrected body could come out without disturbing material objects. The door was opened, not to let Him out, but to show the disciples that He had risen. He later went through closed doors (20:19).
The 16th and last Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in John (Psa. 16:10-11) is ‘that he must rise again from the dead.’
‘Own home’ that is, places where the disciples were temporarily residing.
We read in Matthew 27:52-53 that after Christ’s resurrection the graves were opened; and many bodies of the Old Testament saints arose and went into Jerusalem and they appeared unto many. These bodies made part of the multitude of captives Christ captured from satan in the underworld of departed spirits and which He took captive with Him when He ascended on high (Eph. 4:8-10; Heb. 2:14-15; Isa. 61:1). Now when Christians die they no longer go into the lower parts of the earth held captive by the devil against their will, but to paradise next to heaven to await the resurrection of the body (2Cor. 5:8; Php. 1:21-24; Rev. 6:9-11; Heb. 12:22). The wicked continue to go to hell to await their resurrection (Luke 16:19-31; Rev.20:11-15).