Romans 10:18-21 But I say, Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world. But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses said, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you. But Esaias is very bold, and said, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me. But to Israel he said, All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.
‘Did not Israel know?’ Paul here answers a third question in the Jewish mind: “Why did not Israel know about these things?” He proves by Moses and Isaiah that they were made clear to Israel centuries ago (10:19-21).
‘I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you’ this is the 10th Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in Romans (10:19; Deut. 32:21). Just as Israel made God jealous and angry over their worship of gods which are not real, so God was to provoke Israel to jealousy and anger by choosing a people who were not His chosen ones.
‘I was found of them that sought me not …’ this is the 11th Old Testament prophecy fulfilled in Romans (10:20-21; Isa. 65:1-2). I have put My salvation in reach of the Gentiles who were not seeking for it and who knew nothing about it and they have received it (9:30). As to Israel, I have done my best to save them, but they refuse to listen after many centuries.
‘All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people’ Five purposes for using Old Testament Scripture: To show similarity of ideas (10:6-8); to show parallel cases (2:24; 8:36; 9:27-29; 11:2-10; 15:21); to explain a doctrinal point (1:17; 4:6-8, 18-21; 9:20-21; 10:15; 15:3); to prove a doctrinal point (3:4, 10-19; 4:3-17; 5:12-14; 9:7-17; 10:5, 11, 13; 12:19-20; 13:9; 14:11); to prove the fulfilment of prophecy (9:25-26, 33; 10:16, 19, 20-21; 11:26-27; 15:9-13).